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Acta Médica Costarricense

On-line version ISSN 0001-6002Print version ISSN 0001-6012


CHACON-RETANA, Gloriana  and  FERNANDEZ-ROJAS, Sara. Kidney stones in children (Renal lithiasis in children). Acta méd. costarric [online]. 2021, vol.63, n.1, pp.29-35. ISSN 0001-6002.


Renal lithiasis is due to the precipitation of crystals due to an imbalance in the urine between promoting substances and inhibitory substances. It is a pathology with a prevalence between 2-10% in the pediatric population, with an incidence that has increased in the last 25 years; for this reason, this study aims to know the prevalence, clinical and metabolic manifestations of renal lithiasis in the pediatric population of the National Children’s Hospital of Costa Rica.


This is a retrospective, descriptive and observational study, through the review of records of patients under 18 years of age with the diagnosis of renal lithiasis, treated at the National Children’s Hospital, in the period from January 2000 to 2018.


a total of 106 patients were included. The average age at diagnosis was 6.6 ± 3.8 years; the frequency of cases has increased 5.5 times in the last 5 years. Risk factors detected: urinary tract abnormalities 22.6% and family history of lithiasis 17.9%. Metabolic analysis showed low urine output in 74.3%, hyperphosphaturia in 43.2%, hypomagnesuria at 39.2%, and hypercalciuria at 37.8%. Etiologies determined: metabolic 54.7%, urinary tract malformations 16% and idiopathic in 30.9%. Intracorporeal lithotripsy was applied in 61.2%. Recurrence was observed in 28.5% of cases. The incidence of recurrence was related to the size of the lithotripsy (p = 0.001) and surgical treatment (p = 0.010). (p = 0,010).


there is an increase in the frequency of cases of pediatric lithiasis with a multifactorial etiology in the National Children’s Hospital of Costa Rica.

Keywords : nephrolithiasis; urinary tract; hypercalciuria; lithotripsy; metabolic.

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