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Acta Médica Costarricense

On-line version ISSN 0001-6002Print version ISSN 0001-6012


CHACON-RETANA, Gloriana  and  FERNANDEZ-ROJAS, Sara. Renal lithiasis in children. Acta méd. costarric [online]. 2021, vol.63, n.1, pp.29-35. ISSN 0001-6002.

Background and aim:

Renal lithiasis is due to the precipitation of crystals due to an imbalance in the urine between promoter substances and inhibitory substances. It is a pathology with a prevalence between 2-10% in the pediatric population, with an incidence that is increasing in the last 25 years, because of that, this study pretend to know the prevalence, the clinical and metabolic, manifestation of the renal lithiasis in the pediatric population.


It is a retrospective, descriptive and observational study, by reviewing records of patients under 18 years of age with a diagnosis of renal lithiasis, treated at the Hospital Nacional de Niños, in the period of 2000 to 2018.


A total of 106 patients were included, 57,5% men, the average age at diagnosis of 6,6+- 3,8 years, the frequency of cases has increased 5,5 times in the last 5 years. Risk factors detected: urinary trac abnormalities 22,6% and family history of nephrolithiasis 17,9%. The metabolic analysis showed a low urinary flow rate in 74,3%, hyperphosphaturia in 43,2%, hypomagnesuria 39,2% and hypercalciuria 37,8%. Etiologies determined: metabolic 54,7%, malformations of the urinary trac 16% and idiopathic in 30,9%. Intracorporeal lithotripsy was applied in 61,2%. Recurrence was observe in 28,5 % of cases, a relationship was found between the incidence of recurrence with the size of litho (p= 0.001) and surgical treatment (p= 0.01).


There is a significant increase in the incidence of pediatric lithiasis cases with a multifactorial etiology.

Keywords : nephrolithiasis; urinary tract; hypercalciuria; lithotrpsy; metabolic..

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