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Acta Pediátrica Costarricense

Print version ISSN 1409-0090


CHAN ACON, Wendy; AGUILAR MORALES, Lara; SOLEY, Carolina  and  ARGUEDAS MOHS, Adriano. State of the art on human papilloma virus vaccine. Acta pediátr. costarric [online]. 2008, vol.20, n.2, pp.97-105. ISSN 1409-0090.

Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Millions of persons are now infected and the lifetime risk of HPV infection exceeds 50%. HPV is approximately 100% related to the total cases of cervical cancer, 100% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias grade 1, 2, and 3; 40% of vulva, vagina and penile cancer, 100% of genital warts, 100% of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis and 12% of head and neck cancer. Licensed vaccines, Gardasil® and Cervarix®, are composed of a noninfectious mixture of HPV type-specific virus-like particles prepared from the L1 proteins produced by recombinant DNA technology and adsorbed in a aluminum-containing adjuvant. Data from several studies of both vaccines reported a range of efficacy of 98,9 % to 100.0% for the prevention of cervical, vulvar and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias degrees 2 and 3, and therefore, cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer related to the VPH-16/18; in addition to in situ adenocarcinomas and genital warts caused by VPH-16/18/6/11. The effectiveness for both vaccines is maintained for at least 5 years. At the moment no therapeutic effect has been attributed and the vaccine use is prophylactic, nevertheless, vaccination should not be considered as a substitute for cervical cancer screening.

Keywords : genital human papillomavirus; HPV; recombinant vaccine; Gardasil; Cervarix.

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