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Medicina Legal de Costa Rica

On-line version ISSN 2215-5287Print version ISSN 1409-0015


MADRIGAL URENA, Angélica  and  GARCIA CHAVES, Daniela. Pancreas cancer: genetic alterations, morphological changes and its therapeutic implications. Med. leg. Costa Rica [online]. 2018, vol.35, n.1, pp.3-10. ISSN 2215-5287.

Pancreatic cancer is a deadly disease, mainly because it is generally discovered very late and it is very resistant to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The most common type of pancreatic cancer (over 90%) develops from the exocrine cells of the pancreas and is named pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Three precursor lesions of ductal pancreatic cancer have been recognized: pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) and mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN). One of the earliest genetic events involved in PDAC pathogenesis is an activating point mutation in the KRAS oncogene, an oncogenic driver mutation found in more than 90% of all pancreatic cancer. In addition, it has been reported that up to 10% of pancreatic cancer is associated with family history. Although the cause is multifactorial, cigarette smoking and family history are dominant. Morphological heterogeneity exists in many human cancers, but seems to be a particularly common finding in PDAC. Surgery is only possible in 15-20% of cases: tumors confined to the pancreas with possible local nodal involvement not very extensive and that do not produce vascular involvement or is limited.

Keywords : Pancreatic cáncer; Genetic susceptibility; Familial risk; Pathology Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC); Familial pancreatic cancer (FPC); KRAS; Neoplasia intraepitelial pancreática (PanIN).

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