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Revista Tecnología en Marcha

On-line version ISSN 0379-3982Print version ISSN 0379-3982


PINO-GOMEZ, Macario; SOTO-CORDOBA, Silvia M  and  GAVIRIA-MONTOYA, Lilliana. Construction of Risk-Index for assessment of water and sanitation sector (IRSSAS) in Costa Rica. Tecnología en Marcha [online]. 2021, vol.34, n.3, pp.156-176. ISSN 0379-3982.

The threats to water resources are multifactorial, including the degradation and contamination of aquifers and soils, management of aqueducts, financial aspects, education and the characteristics of the territory. The pressure of water use and the variability in its supply due to climate change, justify the urgent need for risk prediction tools. Costa Rica lacks an index that predicts risk in the sustainable provision of drinking water and sanitation services. For these reasons, the research study developed during 2014 to 2019 to estimate an index named Risk Index in the Sustainability of Drinking Water and Sanitation Service Provision (IRSSAS). This index was constructed by considering Water Resource Management (WRM), Environmental Sanitation (ES), Environmental Education (EA), Socioeconomic Development Index (SDI) and the impact of Natural Events (NE). A total of 30 indicators were designed, validated and calculated to make up the index. The indicators were evaluated considering their contribution to vulnerability, mitigation, relevance, functionality, availability, reliability and usefulness. The index was applied to a sample of 97 rural aqueducts located in the provinces of Puntarenas, Guanacaste and Cartago. The results of the risk assessment showed that 81% of these aqueducts presented higher than intermediate risk levels, which shows the lack of sustainability in the provision of water and sanitation services by these operators. This index can be used to evaluate risk and take corrective and preventive actions, thus collaborating with the country’s sustainable development.

Keywords : Drinking water; climate change; water governance; risk index; rural water suppliers.

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