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Revista de Biología Tropical

On-line version ISSN 0034-7744Print version ISSN 0034-7744


CHAVARRIA-SOLEY, Gabriela; RAUTENSTRAUSS, Bernd  and  AZOFEIFA, Jorge. Glaucoma in Costa Rica: Initial approaches. Rev. biol. trop [online]. 2004, vol.52, n.3, pp.507-520. ISSN 0034-7744.

Glaucoma is the second most frequent cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Genetic factors have been implicated in the development of the disease. So far six loci (GLC1A-GLC1F) and two genes (TIGR/MYOC and OPTN) are involved in the development of juvenile (JOAG) and adult onset or chronic primary open angle glaucoma (COAG), while two loci (GLC3A,GLC3B) and one gene (CYP1B1) are known for primary congenital glaucoma (PCG). Here we summarize the results of the first genetic studies of glaucoma in Costa Rica. Nine families: 1 with JOAG, 1 with PCG and 7 with COAG were screened for mutations at the known genes. A10 bp duplication, 1546-1555dupTCATGCCACC, at the CYP1B1 gene, causes, in homozygous state, glaucoma in the consanguineous PCG family. This mutation has been found in different countries and generates an early stop codon that termitates protein synthesis 140 amino acids earlier than the normal allele. In exon 1 of the TIGR/MYOC the innocuous Arg76Lys variant was found in two of the COAG families. In the OPTN gene two variants in the coding region (Thr34Thr, Met 98Lys) and 7 intronic changes were found in other Costa Rican glaucoma patients. One of the COAG families was chosen for a genome scan with 379 microsatellite markers and linkage analysis. LOD scores "suggestive" of linkage were obtained for several chromosomal regions. Evidence indicates that hereditary glaucoma in Costa Rica is highly heterogeneous and that further studies in the country will probably disclose some up to now unknown genes responsible for the disease. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3): 507-520. Epub 2004 Dic 15.

Keywords : glaucoma; TIGR/MYOC; OPTN; CYP1B1; genome scan; linkage analysis.

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