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Acta Médica Costarricense

On-line version ISSN 0001-6002Print version ISSN 0001-6012


ROJAS-JIMENEZ, Sebastián  and  VALVERDE-MUNOZ, Kathia. Aplastic anemia in Costa Rican pediatric population: a 10 year experience. Acta méd. costarric [online]. 2020, vol.62, n.3, pp.119-125. ISSN 0001-6002.


Aplastic anemia is a rare and life-threatening disease without diagnosis and early treatment. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological characters of patients with aplastic anemia and 0-13 years old in Costa Rica, to treat in the Hospital Nacional de Niños Dr.Carlos Sáenz Herrera, CajaCostarricense de Seguro Social; only there offers Pediatric Hematology service.


We performed an observational retrospective study, there including the patients diagnosed with both acquired aplastic anemia and inherited bone marrow failure syndromes from January 2006 to June 2016, regardless of sex or ethnicity. We evaluated the treatment received, the response to each treatment, and mortality associated with the disease.


An overall of 27 patients were included, 23 diagnosed with acquired aplastic anemia and, 4 with bone marrow failure syndrome. The mean age of diagnosis was 81.7 months, with a male to female ratio of 1.1:1. Of the 23 patients diagnosed with acquired aplastic anemia, 10 received immunosuppressive therapy with antithymocite globulin, with a response to horse globulin as a first line treatment in 2/5 patients, and 1 as a second line treatment. Patients with rabbit globulin showed to response in 1/5 cases when used as a first line treatment, and a response as a second line treatment after a no response treatment with horse globulin in 2/3 patients. Three patients treated with a matched related donor bone marrow transplant and showed complete response, without complications including graft versus host disease by the end of the study period. There was no statistical difference regarding sex, age of diagnosis, blood cell counts, frequency of blood product transfusions, degree of severity associated or, mortality.


Our results confirm the low incidence of aplastic anemia, it’s a little study population and has limited results of relevant characteristics and can´t compare with international studies.

Keywords : pediatrics; aplastic anemia; acquired aplastic anemia; bone marrow transplant; antithymocite globulin.

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