SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.62 issue2Barriers and facilitators related to leprosy detection in Costa Rica author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand




Related links

  • Have no similar articlesSimilars in SciELO


Acta Médica Costarricense

On-line version ISSN 0001-6002Print version ISSN 0001-6012


ALFARO-MURILLO, Alberto  and  LEON-BRATTI, María Paz. Hydroxychloroquine: Inca inheritance drug to modern immunology. Acta méd. costarric [online]. 2020, vol.62, n.2, pp.57-64. ISSN 0001-6002.

Hydroxychloroquine is an old drug derived from the quino tree (Cinchona pubescens), from the alkaloid chemical component called quinine. Its first uses trace back to the Inca empire of Peru. It is characterized by different beneficial effects in immunological diseases, decreasing the processes of autoinflammation and persistent autoimmunity.

This review focuses on describing the immunomodulatory mechanisms of hydroxychloroquine as well as the effects of the drug on some of the most prevalent autoimmune diseases: systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren’s syndrome, systemic vasculitis, IgA nephropathy, antiphospholipid syndrome, different skin-related autoimmune disorders. The main adverse effects will be revised, focusing in the retinal toxicity.

Keywords : Hydroxychloroquine; Quinine; Autoimmunity, Toll-Like Receptors; Retinal Diseases.

        · abstract in Spanish     · text in Spanish     · Spanish ( pdf )