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Acta Médica Costarricense

On-line version ISSN 0001-6002Print version ISSN 0001-6012


BARBOZA-ARGUELLO, María de la Paz  and  BENAVIDES-LARA, Adriana. Prevalence of gastroschisis and omphalocele in Costa Rica. Acta méd. costarric [online]. 2018, vol.60, n.1, pp.35-41. ISSN 0001-6002.


In several countries, an increase in abdominal wall defects, mainly gastroschisis, has been documented. The objective is to know the trend of gastroschisis and omphaloce by maternal age in Costa Rica, between 1996 and 2014.


using the database of the national congenital defects surveillance system, congenital abdominal wall defects rates were calculated by maternal age (under 20, 20-34, 35 years or more), and period (1996-2002, 2003-2008 and 2009-2014) with their respective 95% CI. A Poisson regression was carried out, taking as a base the group 20-34 years and the period 1996-2002, and were compared estimated by Wald’s chi-square. The impact of MS was evaluated by population attributable fraction and fertility and proportional distribution of births were calculated according to this variable.


abdominal wall defects prevalence increased from 0.76 (95% CI 0.15-1.36) per 10,000 births in 1996 to 3.48 (95% CI 2.12-4.85) in 2014. Relative risk for gastroschisis was 3.76 (2.95- 4.79) in mothers younger than 20 years and the population attributable fraction 36.2%. The relative risk for omphalocele was 2.09 (1.22-3.59) in mothers older than 35 years and population attributable fraction 8.9%. There was a decrease in the proportional distribution of births and the fertility rate in mothers under 20 and over 35.


the prevalence of congenital abdominal wall defects has increased significantly over time. The increase in gastroschisis in mothers under 20 years was greater, despite the fact that births have decreased in this age group.

Keywords : Gastroschisis; omphalocele; prevalence; Costa Rica.

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