SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.56 issue4Obstetric outcomes in patients that underwent loop electrosurgical excision proceduresMaternal 3-methylcrotonyl-coenzymeA carboxylase deficiency in Costa Rica author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand




Related links

  • Have no similar articlesSimilars in SciELO


Acta Médica Costarricense

On-line version ISSN 0001-6002Print version ISSN 0001-6012


CONTRERAS-ROJAS, Javier  and  RAVENTOS-VORST, Henriette. Clinical characterization of costarican families with bipolar disorder. Acta méd. costarric [online]. 2014, vol.56, n.4, pp.167-173. ISSN 0001-6002.

Explanation and objectives: Clinical heterogeneity is one of the main challenges to diagnose bipolar disorder type I. Multiple sources of information are required to define comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders, as well as the clinical and demographic characteristics of this mental disorder. The objective of this study is to analyze the socio-demographic, clinical and course characteristics of bipolar disorder type I in Costa Rican families with more than one member affected. Methods: A sample of 167 individuals with bipolar disorder type I from different families in Costa Rica was studied. The clinical diagnosis was carried out through a best estimate diagnostic procedure and a characterization of lifetime clinical dimensions. Logistic regression and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Ninety-three subjects (55.7%) were females and the mean age at the time of the interview was 43.25 (SD=13.90). In the case of probands with age of onset for bipolar disorder type I after age 20 years, 24 (14.0%) first-degree relatives had been diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I (x2=3.56, p=0.05); OR=1.7; 95% CI=1.2-2.7. The median for age of onset of substance use disorder in males was 17 (SE=0.4) compared to 23 (SE=3.2) in females (x2=3.90, p=0.04). Bipolar disorder type I males with comorbid substance use disorder reported earlier age of onset of any psychiatric symptom than those without substance use disorder (x2=8.99, p=0.003). Conclusions: Substance use disorder, followed by anxiety disorders are the most prevalent comorbid conditions in bipolar disorder type I. Early onset of bipolar disorder type I in probands was associated with higher number of relatives suffering from bipolar disorder type I.

Keywords : Bipolar disorder; family studies; Costa Rica; substance use disorder; dual diagnosis.

        · abstract in Spanish     · text in Spanish     · Spanish ( pdf )


Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License