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Acta Médica Costarricense

On-line version ISSN 0001-6002Print version ISSN 0001-6012


CASTRO-VOLIO, Isabel. Cytogenetic indicators for the identification of ionizing radiation exposure in humans. Acta méd. costarric [online]. 2013, vol.55, n.3, pp.110-117. ISSN 0001-6002.

Cytogenetic biodosimetry is applied in the medical evaluation of persons involved in radiological abnormal situations in order to assess the doses received, the imminent danger to health and to apply the most appropriate medical treatment. It also contributes to the clarification of events when there are doubts about the results of the physical dosimetry due to defective or absent dosimeters. It is the most accurate method of biological dosimetry as there is a mathematical relationship to calculate the dose, to establish the degree of homogeneity of exposure and, in the case of non-homogeneous exposures, to establish the fraction of the body irradiated and the dose it received. This is done through the quantification of the number and types of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei and their distribution in peripheral blood lymphocytes. For this analysis, the dose-effect relationships and an automated system for calculating radiation doses are established. Currently we are developing a joint project University of Costa Rica - San Juan de Dios Hospital, in order to explore the effects of radiation on the chromosomes of patients exposed for therapeutic reasons and treated at this hospital. Similarly, we will make the calibration curve for the dose -in vitro response for gamma rays and validate it by intercomparison with the Cytogenetic Dosimetry Laboratory of the Center for the Protection and Radiation Hygiene of Cuba.

Keywords : radiobiology; biological dosimetry; dicentric chromosomes; nuclear accidents.

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