Acta Médica Costarricense
Print version ISSN 0001-6012
LEAL-MATEOS, Manrique; GIACOMIN, Loretta and PACHECO-VARGAS, Luis Diego. Pre gestation body mass index and maternal weight gain, its relationship with new born weight. Acta méd. costarric [online]. 2008, vol.50, n.3, pp. 160-167. ISSN 0001-6012.
Aim: To explore the relationship between pregestational body mass index (BMI) and maternal weight gain during pregnancy with the newborns weight in the national health system. Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study. Three hundred and sixty medical records from pregnant patients seen at the Obstetrics Service of the Calderon Guardia Hospital were analyzed. Maternal variables related to the prenatal birth control were: age, weight, height, body mass index (kg/m2), weight gain per trimester and total weight gain through pregnancy. Labor and delivery variables included were: gestational age, mode of delivery, labor and expulsive period duration in minutes, episiotomy and presence of perineal tears. Neonatal outcomes analyzed were: sex, birth weight and height, cephalic circumference, 5 minutes Apgar score, wight/age relationship, shoulder dystocia, fetal lesion, need for neonatal resuscitation or newborn hospitalization. Results: Taking as a reference the group with normal BMI, the percentage of both either small for gestional age (SGA) and large for gestional age (LGA) newborns was higher in the group of low BMI and obesity, respectively. A significant relationship was observed between the length of labor and pregestational BMI. The presence of dystocia and fetal lesion were more frequent in obese patients. Weight gain during gestation was found to be related with neonatal authropometric measurements. The products of mothers whose weight vas higher than advisible weighted more, were taller and had a larger cephalic circumference and in general they were larger than expected for their gestational age. There was no significant difference between the influence of weight gain during pregnancy and the labor variables. Taking as a reference the group with adequate weight gain during pregnancy, the percentage of SGA and LGA newborns was similar between this group and the one with lower weight gain. In contrast, the incidence of LGA newborn was higher in those patients with greater weight gain. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that BMI and weight gain during pregnancy influences the newborn weight.
Keywords : Body mass index; weight gain during pregnancy; newborn weight; Rafael Ángel Calderón Guardia Hospital.