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Lankesteriana

On-line version ISSN 1409-3871

Lankesteriana vol.16 n.1 Cartago Jan./Apr. 2016

http://dx.doi.org/10.15517/lank.v16i1.23621 

Artículos

Epidendrum lasiostachyum (orchidaceae): a new colombian species of the epidendrum macrostachyum group

Eric Hágsater1 

Elizabeth Santiago Ayala1 

Lizeth Rodríguez-Martínez2 

1Herbario AMO, Montañas Calizas 490, México, CDMX 11000, México

2Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia-sede Palmira, Cra. 32#12-00, Chapinero, Palmira, Colombia.

Abstract:

In Epidendrum,considered a monophyletic genus, diverse groups can be recognized by their similar vegetative and floral characteristics. The revision of one of these groups, the E. macrostachyum group, recognized by the monopodial habit, with sub-apical branching, apical, erect inflorescence, non-resupinate, fleshy flowers, and entire lip, embracing the column, pubescent at least at the base, has led to the description of several new species, including a new species from Colombia that is here described and illustrated. The species is similar to Epidendrum microrigidiflorum, but differs in the inflorescence (distichous, 6 flowered vs. racemose, 8-16 flowered), the shape (trullate vs. widely rhombic) and ornamentation of the lip (sericeous vs. minutely papillose), and the lack of calli on the disc of the lip (ecallose vs. bicallose). In addition, a key to the 41 species of the group is provided.

Keywords: Colombia; Orchidaceae; Epidendrum; new species; Epidendrum macrostachyum group

Resumen:

En Epidendrum, siendo considerado un género monofilético, se pueden reconocer diversos grupos de especies con características vegetativas y florales similares. La revisión de uno de estos grupos, el grupo E. macrostachyum, el cual se reconoce por su hábito monopodial con ramificaciones subapicales, inflorescencia apical, erecta y flores no resupinadas, carnosas con el labelo entero abrazando la columna y pubescente por lo menos en la base, ha permitido la descripción de varias especies nuevas, entre ellas la nueva especie que se describe y se ilustra aquí. Es una especie colombiana similar a Epidendrum microrigidiflorum, sin embargo difiere por la inflorescencia (dística, 6 flores vs. racemosa, 8-16 flores), en la forma (trulado vs. anchamente rómbico) y ornamentación del labelo (densamente seríceo vs. diminutamente papiloso) y en la ausencia de callos en el disco del mismo (ecalloso vs. bicalloso). Se presenta además una clave de las 41 especies del grupo.

Introduction

The genus Epidendrum L. was described by Linnaeus in 1763. It originally included most of the tropical epiphytic orchids, presently placed in other genera of the Orchidaceae family such as Arachnis Blume, Brassavola R.Br., Brassia R.Br., Prosthechea Knowles & Westc., among others. The genus was conserved by the Botanical Congress of 1930 with Epidendrum nocturnum Jacq. chosen as the conserved type (Sprague 1929). In 2005 Hágsater and Soto calculated that Epidendrum included over 1500 species, distributed from southern United States to northern Argentina. Today we believe that the number is closer to 2400, of which over 1100 having been recently illustrated and described mostly in the series Icones Orchidacearum (Hágsater & Salazar 1993; Hágsater et. al. 1999; Hágsater & Sánchez 2001, 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2013, 2015). It is considered one of the largest genera of Neotropical orchids, and includes terrestrial, epiphytic or lithophytic plants that grow in different types of vegetation ranging from tropical forest, dunes and scrubs to Andean páramos (Hágsater & Soto 2005; Chase et al. 2015). The classification of Epidendrum has been a difficult task for numerous authors due to the great variation of floral and vegetative characteristics, as well as the similarity of herbarium specimens. There have been various attempts throughout the years to separate numerous species included in the genus. Thus various authors have proposed some natural groups in Epidendrum as separate genera, as it the case of Epidanthus L.O.Williams (Williams 1940), or more recently Takulumena Szlach.(Szlachetko et al. 2006; Szlachetko et al. 2014), based on characteristics that seem simple, but which appear repeatedly in various groups of otherwise not closely related species, such as the number of pollinia, or the position of the inflorescence on the stem. With some 300 species sequenced in its DNA, the genus is monophyletic though diverse groups and sub-groups can be recognized (Hágsater & Soto 2005). Among these groups, the E. macrostachyum group with more than 41 recognized species is a difficult one because, the plants and flowers are all very similar at first sight, though careful study of vegetative and floral characteristics, as well as their distributional range, facilitates their identification, some species are sympatric.

They are distributed from Costa Rica to Bolivia and from 670 to 3600 m elevation. It is characterized by having monopodial plants with sub-apical branching from a primary stem, the inflorescence is erect and generally racemose (occasionally distichous), with variously colored, fleshy flowers, of different sizes, and the lip entire and generally more or less pubescent, at least near the base. Due to the lack of understanding of the group, authors such as Dunsterville and Garay (1972) reduced many species (E. bangii Rolfe, E. chondrochilum F.Lehm. & Kraenzl., E. coordinatum Rchb.f., E. dermatanthum Kraenzl., E. magnibracteum Kraenzl. E. rigidiflorum Schltr., E. rostrigerum Rchb.f., E. xylostachyum Lindl.) from Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia to synonyms of Epidendrum macrostachyum Lindl. (non Epidendrum macrostachya Thouars = Beclardia macrostachya (Thouars) A. Rich).

Detailed revision of numerous herbarium specimens, and photographs of live material, as well as personal field experience of the first author has led us to propose that all these the above mentioned names correspond to discrete entities (Santiago & Hágsater 2013, 2015a, b, c, d, e). In addition, a number of new species from Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru have been recently added to the E. macrostachyum group: E. borealistachyum Hágsater, E.Santiago & C.Fernández (Hágsater et al. 2015) E. brachyoothistachyum Hágsater & E.Santiago (Hágsater & Santiago 2015a), E. brachystelestachyum Hágsater, E.Santiago & ReinaRodr., (Hágsater et al. 2015), E. cardiostachyum Hágsater & E. Santiago (Hágsater & Santiago 2015b), E. deltastachyum Hágsater & E.Santiago (Hágsater & Santiago 2015c), E. erikae Hágsater & E.Santiago (Hágsater & Santiago 2015d), E. macphersonii Hágsater & E.Santiago (Hágsater & Santiago 2015e), E. munchiquense Hágsater, E. Santiago & GarcíaRevelo, (Hágsater et al. 2015), E. notostachyum Hágsater & E.Santiago (Hágsater & Santiago 2015f), E. odontostachyum Hágsater & E.Santiago (Hágsater & Santiago, 2015j), E. porphyrostachyum Hágsater & E.Santiago (Hágsater & Santiago 2015k), E. puracestachyum Hágsater & E.Santiago (Hágsater & Santiago 2015l), E. recurvitepalostachyum Hágsater & E.Santiago (Hágsater & Santiago 2015m), E.sarcostachyum Hágsater, E.Santiago & E. Becerra, (Hágsater et al. 2015), E.sigmostachyum Hágsater, E.Santiago & D.Trujillo (Hágsater et al. 2015), E. stenobractistachyum Hágsater & E.Santiago (Hágsater & Santiago 2015n), and E. sumacostachyum Hágsater & E.Santiago(Hágsater & Santiago 2015o). The species described below is another example of such new entities.

Material and methods

A revision of nearly 700 herbarium specimens from numerous different collectors, years and countries including Venezuela, Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia was done. The specimens mostly shelved under Epidendrum macrostachyum are deposited in herbaria including AAU, AMO, AMES, C, CAUP, COL, CUVC, CUZ, F, G, GB, HPUJ, HUA, JAUM, K, L, LE, LOJA, MO, MOL, QCA, QCNE, RENZ, S, SEL, U, US, USJ, USM, VALLE, VEN, NY and W. For specimens on loan floral segments were drawn using a camera lucida mounted on a dissecting microscope. For selected specimens complete illustrations including vegetative and reproductive traits (e.g. floral segments, lip and nectary ornamentation) were prepared. Numerous photographs taken in the field and provided by numerous photographers and on internet were registered and analyzed. Eric Hágsater has travelled extensively in Ecuador, Colombia and Peru between 1970 and 2016, collecting and studying the genus Epidendrum, photographing and collecting numerous specimens.

Lizeth Rodríguez Martínez, a student of agronomy at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, campus Palmira, made several field trips during 2014 in the Department of Valle del Cauca, Colombia, discovering the population of the species here proposed and described. Individual plants were photographed, flowers were preserved in alcohol, and an illustration prepared (Fig. 1), prior to pressing and desiccation of one specimen and deposited at COL (holotype). Phenology data were recorded in the field. Morphological studies were carried out using a Zeiss stemi 2000 stereomicroscope. A distribution map was produced using ArcMAP (Fig. 2).

Figure 1 Epidendrum lasiostachyum. A. Habit. B. Flower, frontal view. C. Flower, lateral view. D. Flower, longitudinal section. E. Column details. F. Dissected perianth. G. Lip details. Drawn by Lizeth Rodríguez M. from the holotype (L. Rodríguez-Martínez 254). 

Figure 2 Distribution map of the species Epidendrum lasiostachyum in Colombia. 

Taxonomictreatment

Epidendrum lasiostachyum Rodr.-Martínez, Hágsater & E.Santiago, sp. nov.(Fig. 3).

Figure 3 Epidendrum lasiostachyum photographed in situ by L. Rodríguez Martínez (based on the pretype: L. Rodríguez Martínez 254). A. Habit and complete plant. B. Inflorescence details. C & D show different angles of the flower. E. Lip details. 

TYPE: Colombia. Valle del Cauca: Municipio Dagua, Corregimiento San José del Salado, relicto de bosque muy húmedo, epífita de árbol de Tibouchina sp., 1800-1900 m, 21 November 2014, LizethRodríguezMartínez254 (holotype: COL!).

Diagnosis

The species is similar to Epidendrum microrigidifloum Hágsater (Hágsater 2006), but the plants are smaller, 25-30 cm tall (vs. 60-100 cm tall) with a distichous, 6-flowered inflorescence (vs. racemose and 8-16-flowered); petals small, 4-5 mm long (vs. 6.8 mm long), and the lip is trullate, densely sericeous (vs. scarcely papillose), and ecallose (vs. bicallose).

Epiphytic, monopodial, caespitose, erect herb, 25-30 cm tall. Roots 1.5-2.0 mm in diameter, filiform. Stems 20-25 × 0.3-0.5 cm, cane-like, terete, erect, branching when mature, base covered by sheaths 1.2- 1.6 cm long, tubular, non-foliar, scarious. Leaves 7, distributed throughout the stems, articulate to the foliar sheath, spreading with respect to the stem, similar in size and shape, green, concolor; sheaths 1.5-2.5 cm long, tubular, minutely striated, rugose, pale green; blade 4.5-6.0 × 0.8-1.0 cm, lanceolate, apex acute, margin minutely serrate. Inflorescence 6 cm long, apical, developing from mature stems, distichous, erect, laxly few-flowered; peduncle 5-7 × 1.5-2.0 mm, terete, thin, straight; rachis 5.0-5.5 × 0.1-0.2 cm, slightly flexuous, greenish. Floral bracts 5-7 × 2 mm, much shorter than the ovary, triangular-lanceolate, apex acute, margin slightly serrate, embracing, perpendicular to the rachis. Flowers 6, simultaneous, non resupinate, distichous, secund, distributed along the rachis; sepals and petals yellow, lip pale yellow, column greenish yellow with the apex purple; without fragrance. Ovary 15 × 2 mm, terete, thin, striated, lime green. Sepals7-8 × 3-4 mm, free, spreading, fleshy, narrowly ovate, apex acute, 5-veined, margin entire, spreading; lateral sepals oblique, slightly falcate. Petals 4-5 × 1.5 mm, spreading, free, oblong-oblanceolate, apex acute, 1-veined, margin entire, spreading. Lip 7 × 4 mm, united to the column, entire, trullate, the base widely cuneate, apex narrowly rounded, embracing the column in natural position without covering it; ecallose, densely sericeous, the trichomes covering the entire surface of the lip except for the margin, and reclining towards the nectary. Column 4-5 mm long, short, thick, slightly arched at the base, apex deflexed, the surface minutely papillose. Clinandrium reduced, details. margin entire. Anthernot seen. Rostellumapical, slit.Nectary penetrating 2/3 of the ovary, densely sericeous in front of the stigmatic cavity. Capsule not seen.

Distribution and Ecology

It is known presently from the western slope of the Western Cordillera of the Andes, only from one collection from the mountains of San José del Salado, Municipality of Dagua in the Department of Valle del Cauca, Colombia, at an elevation of 1850 m. It is found as an epiphyte in the cloud forests on the western mountain range. Two specimens were found growing on Tibouchina sp. (Melastomataceae). Flowering in November. Growing fully exposed to the sun, along the edge of the forest and pastures, as part of secondary vegetation. Annual mean precipitation is 2000 mm, with constant fog in the early morning and late afternoon. Mean temperature is 17°C, slopes are steep (50-75%). Nearby forests are 25 m tall. The best represented genera were Palicourea Aubl., Psychotria L., Miconia Ruiz & Pav., Solanum L., Cavendishia Lindl. and Clusia L. and the dominant species: Otobalehmannii (A.C. Sm.) A.H. Gentry, Ladenbergia oblongifolia (Humb, ex Mutis) L. Andersson, Myrsine coriacea (Sw.) R. Br., Saurauia scabra (Kunth) D.Dietr., Alchornea latifolia Sw., Ficus tonduzii Standl., Ficus andicola Standl., Meriania nobilis Triana, Clausia sp., Miconia sp. and Schefflera sp. (Hágsater et al., 2015).

Etymology

From the Greek λασιος, shaggy, woolly, and σταχυς, ear of corn; in reference to the lip which is completely (but not the margin) covered by long, straight trichomes reclining towards the nectary that distinguishes this species from others members of the E. macrostachyum group.

Discussion

The species is similar to Epidendrum microrigidiflorum Hágsater but differs mainly in the size of the plant (25-30 cm tall) (Fig. 3A), the fewflowered inflorescence, distichous, with the rachis slightly flexuous (Fig. 3B), the flowers somewhat smaller (Fig. 3C, 3D), and the trullate lip with the base widely cuneate and the apex obtuse, sericeous (Fig. 3E) and the column minutely papillose (Fig. 1E). Epidendrum microrigidiflorum has larger plants (60-100 cm tall), the inflorescence secund and many-flowered and the lip is widely rhombic with the apex apiculate, surface scarcely papillose on the disc and the column unornamented (Fig. 4). Epidendrum notostachyum Hágsater & E.Santiago (Fig. 5) differs in the color and size of the flowers, sepals are 9.0-9.5 mm long, dorsally papillose and the lip scarcely pubescent at the base with the base truncate. Epidendrum polyanthostachyum Hágsater, E.Santiago & García-Ramírez has a densely cylindrical, many-flowered inflorescence (Fig. 6 and 7), the leaves lanceolate, (3.5-14 × 1.8-4.7 cm), the lip scarcely pubescent at the base, widely deltoid with the base cordate. Finally, Epidenrum macrostachyum Lindl. has large, triangular ovate floral bracts (8-18 mm long), with flowers the color of ripe olives or lack-brown and the leaves elliptic (12.5-13 × 3.0-3.5 cm) (Fig. 8).

Figure 4 Inflorescence (A) and flower (B) of Epidendrum microrigidiflorum, photographed by Gary Yong. Panamá, Reserva de la biosfera La Amistad. 

Figure 5 Inflorescence of Epidendrum notostachyum, photographed by Hugo Medina. Ecuador. 

Figure 6 Plant and inflorescence of Epidendrum polyanthostachyum, photographed by Patricia Harding, Colombia, Chocó. 

Figure 7 Inflorescence of Epidendrum polyanthostachyum, photographed by Duván Andrés García Ramírez, Colombia, Valle del Cauca. 

Figure 8 Inflorescence of Epidendrum macrostachyum, photographed by David Haelterman, Colombia, Cauca. 

Key to the species of the macrostachyum group

1. Floral bracts prominent (never shorter that the ovary to much longer that the flower) 11-40 mm long [the apical ones may diminish to 5-7 mm long] 11

1'. Floral bracts small (shorter that the ovary to rarely somewhat longer) 2.5-9[12] mm long 2

2(1'). Inflorescence densely flowered (35-70 flowers) 3

2'. Inflorescence laxly flowered (8-30 flowers) 4

3(2). Flowers small, sepals 5-8 mm long, dorsally muricate E. palaciosii

3'. Flowers larger, sepals 11-15 mm long, dorsally unornamented E. polyanthostachyum

4(2'). Flowers green, yellow or orange, inflorescence lax-flowered 5

4'. Flowers lilaceous white, rarely deep lilac, inflorescence dense E. borealistachyum

5(4). Leaves elliptic or narrowly elliptic, 8-18 × [2.2]3-5 cm on the main stem; lip clearly cordiform; sepals 14-18 mm long E. cardiostachyum

5'. Leaves lanceolate to linear lanceolate, 6-15 × 0.6-1.7 [2.3] cm on the main stem; lip deltoid, sub-deltoid to widely rhombic; sepals 6.5-13 mm long 6

6(5'). Inflorescence 20 cm long; sepals 12-13 mm long; lip sub-deltoid with the base cordate E. odontostachyum

6'. Inflorescence 5-13 [15] cm long; sepals 6-12 mm long; lip deltoid or widely rhombic, base truncate, slightly sub-cordate or cuneate 7

7(6'). Lip densely pubescent throughout its ventral surface E. lasiostachyum

7'. Lip sparsely pubescent on the disc of the lip 8

8(7'). Sepals 6-7.5 mm long 9

8'. Sepals 9-12 mm long 10

9(8). Inflorescence 5 cm long; flowers 8-12; petals 5 × 1 mm, linear, the apex obtuse; column 3 mm long

E. microcarpum

9'. Inflorescence 7-8 cm long; flowers 15-17; petals 6.7 × 1.5 mm, oblong, falcate, the apex acute; column 7 mm long E. sumacostachyum

10(8') Sepals 9.0-9.5 mm long, dorsally papillose; petals 8 × 1.5 mm; linear-oblanceolate; ovary 5-7 mm long

E. notostachyum

10'. Sepals 9-12 mm long, dorsally glabrous; petals 10 × 1.3 mm, linear; ovary 7-10 mm long E. grammipetalostachym

11(1). Petals obtrullate, spatulate or rhombic 12

11'. Petals linear, oblong, elliptic or widely spatulate 13

12(11). Leaves of the main stem 8.5-9.0 × 1.5-1.7 cm; lip 7 × 9 mm, trullate with the apex rounded, ecallose

E. trullichilum

12'. Leaves of the main stem 9-17 × 2.8-4.5 cm; lip 9 × 12 mm, widely triangular cordiform with the apex sub-acute, bicallose E. orthophyllum

13(11'). Inflorescence short (1.5-3.0 cm long), with 3-4 flowers densely aggregate in a very short rachis; leaves linear-lanceolate E. platystachyum

13'. Inflorescence long (7-34 cm long), with 5-21 flowers distributed along the rachis; leaves lanceolate, elliptic to oblong-elliptic 14

14(13'). Floral bracts proportionately nearly as wide as they are long, the apex acute or short-acuminate 15

14'. Floral bracts proportionately longer than wide, the apex acute or long-acuminate 23

15(14). Leaves narrowly elliptic-lanceolate, elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, 1.4-5 cm wide; lip 10-17 × 11-18 mm 16

15'. Leaves lanceolate, 1.5-2.5 cm wide; lip 6-15 × 9-10 mm 21

16(15). Mature inflorescence much longer than the apical leaf, many-flowered, with 18-20 flowers 17

16'. Mature inflorescence as long or slightly shorter than the apical leaf, few-flowered, with 5-8 flowers 20

17(16). Petals oblanceolate, widely spatulate or obovate-elliptic, flowers colorful, never green; anther with the apex obtuse; ovary 9-19 mm long 18

17'. Petals oblong, flowers green, the lip greenish yellow; anther apically short acuminate; ovary very short 6 mm long E. brachyoothistachyum

18(17). Flowers white tinged with purple; petals 15 × 5 mm, oblanceolate E. obovatipetalum

18'. Flowers reddish orange to lilac; petals 13.2-14.0 × 6-8 mm, widely spatulate to obovate-elliptic 19

19(18). Flowers 15-20, lilac; petals obliquely obovate-elliptic with the apex sub-obtuse; lip ecallose E. erikae

19'. Flowers ca. 45, reddish-orange; petals widely spatulate and the apex rounded; lip bicallose E. ariasii

20(16'). Inflorescence 6.5 cm long; sepals 15 × 9 mm; petals nearly as wide as the sepals; flowers greenish white

E. xylostachyum

20'. Inflorescence 8-13 cm long; sepals 21 × 12.5 mm; petals half as wide as the sepals; flowers yellowish green E. humeadorense

21(15'). Lateral sepals partly spreading, slightly concave; petals linear-oblanceolate to lanceolate, spreading 22

21'. Lateral sepals reflexed, convex; petals oblanceolate, reflexed E. recurvitepalostachyum

22(21). Rachis of the inflorescence straight; floral bracts 5-7 mm wide, the apex acute; lateral sepals very fleshy; petals linear-oblanceolate E. sarcostachyum

22'. Rachis of the inflorescence sinuous; floral bracts 8-12 mm wide, the apex acuminate and uncinate; lateral sepals slightly fleshy; petals lanceolate E. chondrochilum

23(14'). Floral bracts much longer than the total length of the flower 24

23'. Floral bracts never much longer than the flower 25

24(23). Leaf blade of the main stem 18-20 × 2-5 cm, elliptic-lanceolate; inflorescence pyramidal, the rachis straight; flowers successive 21-30; ovary 6-7 mm long; lip widely cordiform (proportionately wider than long); sepals ovate-elliptic, obtuse E. magnibracteum

24'. Leaf blade of the main stem 15-18 x 2-2.8 cm, narrowly lanceolate; inflorescence distichous with the rachis fractiflex; flowers mostly simultaneous, 11-12; ovary 9-12 mm long; lip cordiform (as wide as it is long); sepals triangular-ovate, acute E. bractiacuminatum

25(23'). Inflorescence of the main stem 2.5-9.0 [13-17] cm long 26

25'. Inflorescence of the main stem 15-40 cm long 33

26(25). Leaves 4.0-10.4 × 1.8-3.3 cm, elliptic to oblong-elliptic 27

26'. Leaves 1.5-11.0 × 0.4-2.3 cm, lanceolate 31

27(26). Anther with the apex acute or truncate, never surpassing the apex of the column; sepals 13.5-17 × 4-7 mm 28

27'. Anther with the apex rostrate, surpassing the apex of the column; sepals 9-12 × 3-5 mm 29

28(27). Flowers peach colored; petals linear-oblong; sepals dorsally glabrous; column sigmoid E. sigmostachyum

28'. Flowers green tinged brown, turning orange-brown when mature; petals oblong-elliptic; sepals dorsally echinate; column straight E. deltastachyum

29(27'). Lateral sepals with a high, laminar, dorsal keel, the apex erose; petals oblong, apex rounded; anther with a short, incipient apical rostrum shorter than the anther itself; flowers red E. macphersonii

29'. Lateral sepals with a low, incipient dorsal keel, the margin entire; petals linear, apex acute; anther with an apical rostrum much longer than the body of the anther; flowers green 30

30(29'). Inflorescence 13 cm long; sepals 9-11 mm long, apex acute; lip 6.5-8.0 × 7-10 mm, semi-circular with the base sub-truncate, without ribs; column 5-6 mm long E. rostrigerum

30'. Inflorescence 5-8 cm long; sepals 10-13 mm long, apex acute; lip 9-10 × 9-11 mm, deltoid with the base truncate, with a low rib down the middle; column 7-8 mm long E. probosantherum

31(26'). Flowers small, sepals 7.5-7.8 mm long; inflorescence secund flowered; lip rhombic, the base cuneate

E. microrigidiflorum

31'. Flowers large, sepals 12-15 mm long; inflorescence distichous; lip deltate to deltate-cordiform 32

32(31'). Sepals 14-15 mm long, slightly recurved, the apex minutely apiculate; floral bracts narrowly oblong or triangular-lanceolate E. stenobractistachyum

32'. Sepals 12.0-13.7 mm long, partly spreading to spreading, the apex uncinate; floral bracts ovate-lanceolate

E. coordinatum

33(25'). Sepals 15-23 mm long 34

33'. Sepals 10-12 mm long 38

34(33). Rachis of the inflorescence slightly flexuous; flowers 6-15; lip 14.5 × 14.4 mm E. bangii

34'. Rachis of the inflorescence straight; flowers 15-27; lip 9-12 × 8-12 mm 35

35(34'). Sepals and petals long acuminate; sepals 15-23 mm long E. oxycalyx

35'. Sepals and petals acute; sepals 14-18 mm long 36

36(35'). Inflorescence (of the main stem) 24-40 cm long; flowers wine-red 37

36'. Inflorescence (of the main stem) 11-14 cm long; flowers reddish brown E. dermatanthum

37(36). Inflorescence lax flowered, 25-40 cm long; leaves green with the margin reddish; column wide and straight

E. munchiquense

37'. Inflorescence densely flowered, 24 cm long; leaves wine-red; column thin and slightly arched

E. porphyrostachyum

38(33'). Leaves narrowly lanceolate, apex acute to short acuminate, leaves of the main stem 1.6-2.5 cm wide; inflorescence 15-23 cm long, flowers yellow to greenish yellow or wine-red 39

38'. Leaves lanceolate elliptic, apex acute; leaves of the main stem 3.0-3.5 cm wide; inflorescence to 31 cm long, flowers the color of ripe black olives 40

39(38). Flowers wine-red; leaves 5.3-8.0 cm long, lanceolate, apex acute; petals oblong-triangular, never falcate

E. puracestachyum

39'. Flowers yellow to greenish yellow; leaves 7.5-18.0 cm long, lanceolate, apex acuminate; petals linear and falcate E. rigidiflorum

40(38'). Petals linear-oblong, apex sub-obtuse; lip widely cordiform, base slightly cordate, column thin

E. macrostachyum

40'. Petals linear-triangular, apex sub-acute; lip triangular, base truncate; column thick E. brachystelestachyum

Acknowledgements.

We wish to thank the participation of Dr. Guillermo Reina-Rodríguez, researcher at the Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia, for his valuable information provided on the Corregimiento San José del Salado, Dagua Municipality. We also wish to acknowledge Gary Young (Australia), Hugo Medina (Ecuador), Duván Andrés García Ramírez (Colombia) and David Haelterman (Belgium) as well as Patricia Harding (United States of America) for supplying and permitting us the use of the digital images that complement this paper.

Literaturecited

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Hágsater, E.&Santiago, E. (2015a). Epidendrum brachyoothistachyum. In E. Hágsater &L. Sánchez S. (eds.), The Genus Epidendrum, Part 11, Icones Orchidacearum 15(1)(t. 1507). México: Instituto Chinoin, A. C. [ Links ]

Hágsater, E.&Santiago, E. (2015b). Epidendrum cardiostachyum. In E. Hágsater &L. Sánchez S.(eds.), The Genus Epidendrum, Part 11, Icones Orchidacearum 15(1)(t. 1510). México: Instituto Chinoin, A. C. [ Links ]

Hágsater, E.& Santiago, E.(2015c). Epidendrum deltastachyum In E. Hágsater &L. Sánchez S. (eds.), The Genus Epidendrum, Part 11, Icones Orchidacearum 15(1)(t. 1518). México: Instituto Chinoin, A. C. [ Links ]

Hágsater, E.& Santiago, E. (2015d). Epidendrum erikae.In E. Hágsater &L. Sánchez S. (eds.), The Genus Epidendrum, Part 11, Icones Orchidacearum 15(1)(t. 1521). México: Instituto Chinoin, A. C. [ Links ]

Hágsater, E.& Santiago, E.(2015e). Epidendrum macphersonii In E. Hágsater &L. Sánchez S.(eds.), The Genus Epidendrum, Part 11, Icones Orchidacearum 15(1)(t. 1536). México: Instituto Chinoin, A. C. [ Links ]

Hágsater, E.& Santiago, E.(2015f). Epidendrum notostachyum.In E. Hágsater &L. Sánchez S.(eds.), The Genus Epidendrum, Part 11, Icones Orchidacearum 15(1)(t. 1545). México: Instituto Chinoin, A. C. [ Links ]

Hágsater, E.& Santiago, E. (2015j). Epidendrum odontostachyum In E. Hágsater &L. Sánchez S.(eds.), The Genus Epidendrum, Part 11, Icones Orchidacearum 15(1)(t. 1547). México: Instituto Chinoin, A. C. [ Links ]

Hágsater, E.& Santiago, E. (2015k). Epidendrum porphyrostachyum In E. Hágsater &L. Sánchez S.(eds.), The Genus Epidendrum, Part 11, Icones Orchidacearum 15(1)(t. 1550). México: Instituto Chinoin, A. C. [ Links ]

Hágsater, E.& Santiago, E. (2015l). Epidendrum puracestachyum In E. Hágsater &L. Sánchez S.(eds.), The Genus Epidendrum, Part 11, Icones Orchidacearum 15(1)(t. 1552). México: Instituto Chinoin, A. C. [ Links ]

Hágsater, E.& Santiago, E. (2015m). Epidendrum recurvitepalostachyum In E. Hágsater &L. Sánchez S. (eds.), The Genus Epidendrum, Part 11, Icones Orchidacearum 15(1)(t. 1554). México: Instituto Chinoin, A. C. [ Links ]

Hágsater, E.& Santiago, E. (2015n). Epidendrum stenobractistachyum In E. Hágsater &L. Sánchez S.(eds.), The Genus Epidendrum, Part 11, Icones Orchidacearum 15(1)(t. 1562). México: Instituto Chinoin, A. C. [ Links ]

Hágsater, E.& Santiago, E.(2015o). Epidendrum sumacostachyum In E. Hágsater &L. Sánchez S.(eds.), The Genus Epidendrum, Part 11, Icones Orchidacearum 15(1)(t. 1563). México: Instituto Chinoin, A. C. [ Links ]

HágsaterE., SantiagoE., &Fernandez, C.(2015). Epidendrum borealistachyum.In E. Hágsater &L. Sánchez S. (eds.), The Genus Epidendrum, Part 11, Icones Orchidacearum 15(1)(t. 1505). México: Instituto Chinoin, A. C. [ Links ]

Hágsater,E., Santiago, E.&Becerra, E. (2015). Epidendrum sarcostachyumIn E. Hágsater &L. Sánchez S. (eds.), The Genus Epidendrum, Part 11, Icones Orchidacearum 15(1)(t. 1558). México: Instituto Chinoin, A. C. [ Links ]

Hágsater,E., Santiago, E.&Trujillo, D.(2015). Epidendrum sigmostachyumIn E. Hágsater &L. Sánchez S. (eds.), The Genus Epidendrum, Part 11, Icones Orchidacearum 15(1)(t. 1560). México: Instituto Chinoin, A. C. [ Links ]

Hágsater, E., Santiago, E.&Reina-Rodríguez, G.. (2015). Epidendrum brachystelestachyumE. Hágsater &L. Sánchez S. (eds.) The Genus Epidendrum, Part 11, Icones Orchidacearum 15(1)(t. 1509). México: Instituto Chinoin, A. C. [ Links ]

Hágsater,E., Santiago, E.&García-Revelo, S.(2015). Epidendrum munchiquense In E. Hágsater &L. Sánchez S.(eds.) The Genus Epidendrum, Part 11, Icones Orchidacearum 15(1)(t. 1544). México: Instituto Chinoin, A. C. [ Links ]

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Hágsater, E., Reina-Rodríguez, G.,&RodríguezM.L. (2015). Epidendrum chilcalorum In E.Hágsater&L., SánchezS. (eds.) The Genus Epidendrum, Part 11, Icones Orchidacearum 15(1)(t. 1512). México: Instituto Chinoin, A. C. [ Links ]

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Received: October 27, 2015; Revised: March 14, 2016; Accepted: March 31, 2016

Authors for correspondence: herbamo@prodigy.net.mx • www.herbarioamo.org

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