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Revista de Biología Tropical

On-line version ISSN 0034-7744Print version ISSN 0034-7744

Rev. biol. trop vol.62 n.4 San José Oct./Dec. 2014


New leafhopper species of Jikradia from Mesoamerica with new records, revised key to species, distribution, origin, and checklist (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Coelidiinae: Teruliini)

Mervin W. Nielson1*, Richard S. Zack2*, Francesco Poggi3* & Herbert Nickel4*


The following four new species of leafhoppers are described and illustrated: Jikradia dentata n. sp. and J. trispinata n. sp. from Guatemala, J. variabilis n. sp. from Belize, and J. exilis n. sp. from Costa Rica. Jikradia basipendula Nielson and J. krameri Nielson are new records for Guatemala. Belize is a new record for the genus. A record of the first introduction of the genus in the Old World is reviewed. A revised key to the known species is provided with a review of its possible origin. A checklist of all known species is also given. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (4): 1375-1383. Epub 2014 December 01.
Key words: leafhoppers, taxonomy, new species, new records, checklist, Guatemala, Belize, Costa Rica, Italy.


Las siguientes cuatro nuevas especies de chicharritas son descritas e ilustradas: Jikradia dentata n. sp. y J. trispinata n. sp. de Guatemala, J. variabilis n. sp. de Belice, y J. exilis n. sp. de Costa Rica. Jikradia basipendula Nielson y J. krameri Nielson son nuevas especies reportadas para Guatemala. El género Jikradia es un nuevo registro para Belice. Un registro de la primera introducción del género en el Viejo Continente es revisado. Se presenta una clave revisada de las nuevas especies con una revisión de su posible origen. También se presenta una lista revisada de todas las especies conocidas.
Palabras clave: chicharritas, nuevas especies, nuevos registros, lista de verificación, taxonomía, Costa Rica, Belice, Guatemala, Italia.

The genus Jikradia was described by Nielson (1979) in a revision of the tribe Teruliini, followed by the description of one new species by Nielson (1989) and a subsequent review with descriptions of four new species by Godoy and Nielson (1998). Twenty-two species are presently known, including four new species described herein. A new introduction of Jikradia olitoria (Say) in the Old World (Italy) was first discovered and identified by Dr. Francesco Poggi and confirmed by Dr. Herbert Nickel, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany (personal communications, 12 August 2013- 22 October 2013). Specimens from Italy were donated by Dr. Poggi to the senior author who subsequently confirmed the identifications.

Jikradia is one of only two genera in the tribe Teruliini, subfamily Coelidiinae that occupies both the New and Old World. The other genus is Biadorus recorded from Brazil and Ivory Coast in West Africa. Jikradia is broadly distributed in the Neotropical and Nearctic regions from the Galapagos Islands Northward into Canada. Guatemala has the richest fauna in Mesoamerica and may represent the center of its origin. A discussion of the taxonomic limitations of the genus is covered in Nielson (1979) and in Godoy and Nielson (1998).

In this paper we describe four new species, two from Guatemala, one from Costa Rica and one from Belize, which is also a new distribution record for the genus. Four taxa formerly designated as subspecies in Nielson (1979) are elevated to species rank. Jikradia infula Nielson, not included in the Godoy and Nielson (1998) paper is added herein. A revised key to species is provided. A checklist of all known species and their distribution is given. The possible origin of the group is also reviewed.

Materials and methods

Specimens from Guatemala were collected by Richard Zack and borrowed from the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville, FL. Paul Freytag provided specimens from Costa Rica and Belize. Specimens from Italy were provided by Dr. Francesco Poggi and are in M. W. Nielson’s personal collection (MWN). The Guatemalan types are deposited in the Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, Guatemala City (UVG). The types from Costa Rica and Belize are deposited in the Museo de Zoología, San José, Costa Rica (MZUCR) and the United States Natural History Museum, Washington, D.C. (NMNH), respectively. Additional specimens are deposited in the M. T. James Entomological Collection at Washington State University (WSUC).


Jikradia dentata
Nielson and Zack, n. sp.
Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3, Fig. 4 and Fig. 5.
Length: Male 7.05mm; female 8.15-8.30mm.

External morphology: moderately large, slightly robust species. General color deep brown to black with light brown head and translucent costa on forewing. Face light brown, eyes dark brown.

Male genitalia: Pygofer in lateral view narrow in basal 1/3, rectangulate in distal 2/3, tuft of macrosetae on upper caudoventral margin, small digitate lobe apically (Fig. 1); aedeagus in lateral view with single, subapical process, arising from ventral margin, gonopore not evident (Fig. 2); style in lateral view with apophysis distinctively dentate on inner lateral margin from middle to apex (Fig. 3); connective Y-shaped, arms about equal in length of stem, membrane present in basal half (Fig. 4); dorsal connective very long, narrow (Fig. 2) subgenital plate constricted subbasally, setaceous in distal 1/5 (Fig. 5).

Female: Seventh sternite about twice as long as penultimate sternite, its posterior margin sinuate.

Material examined: Holotype male. GUATEMALA: Zacapa Dept., Marble Quarry rd. at San Lorenzo, NE of Teculutan, 19 July 2007, N15°04.856’ W89°40.086’, 1880m, R. S. Zack collector (UVG). Four female specimens, same data as holotype (UVG, WSUC).

Etymology: The name of the species is descriptive of the dentate, inner lateral margin of the stylar apophysis. The name is based on the Latin root “denta” meaning toothed with consonant “t” and feminine suffix “a.”

Remarks: This species is nearest to J. serrata Nielson but can be distinguished easily from it and all other known species by the distinctive dentate style (Fig. 3).

Jikradia trispinata
Nielson and Zack, n. sp.
Fig. 6, Fig. 7, Fig. 8, Fig. 9 and Fig. 10.
Length: Male 6.59mm; female unknown.

External morphology: Moderately large, slightly robust species. General color black, head including face tannish, forewing with costa translucent.

Male genitalia: Pygofer in lateral view very narrow in basal 1/3, subquadrate in distal 2/3, caudal margin rounded, few macrosetae apically (Fig. 6); aedeagus in lateral view very short, shorter than style, with 3 very long setae arising near middle of shaft on lateral side, gonopore not evident (Fig. 7); style in lateral view very long, apophysis very narrow throughout (Fig. 8); connective Y-shaped, membrane large, nearly triangulate, stem short, expanded distally (Fig. 9); dorsal connective very long, narrow (Fig. 7); subgenital plate long, very narrow in basal 2/5, broad throughout in distal 3/5, setaceous in distal 3/5 (Fig. 10).

Material examined: Holotype male, GUATEMALA: Dept. El Progreso, Sierra de las Minas, nr Pinlano, road between old “fca la Trinidad/fea la Tomenta – la Cabañas”, 15°0722N 89°9469W, 2199 m. 15-17-V-2010, moist oak forest, light trap, Paul Skelly, G. Steck, and B. Sutton (UVG).

Etymology: The name of the species is descriptive of the 3 microsetae on the shaft of the aedeagus. The name is based on a combination of the Latin prefix “tri” meaning three and the root “spina” meaning spine with consonant “t” and feminine suffix “a.”

Remarks: This species, with three microsetae on the aedeagal shaft is nearest to J. bispinosa Nielson, which has two microsetae on the aedeagal shaft.
Jikradia variabilis
Nielson and Nickel, n. sp.
Fig. 11, Fig. 12, Fig. 13, Fig. 14 and Fig. 15
Length: Male 6.20-6.50mm; female 7.75mm.

External morphology: Moderately large, robust species. General color black in males, dark brown in females; head tannish in males, light brown in females; face light yellow in males, light brown in females; forewing with small irregular, light brown spot near middle of costa, color pattern variable in female.

Male genitalia: Pygofer in lateral view subrectangulate, caudal margin subtruncate, few microsetae apically (Fig. 11); aedeagus in lateral view very long, longer than style, shaft tapered apically, sharply pointed apically, with single short subapical microseta, gonopore not evident (Fig. 12), microsetae sometimes absent or broken off; style in lateral view broadly curved, base large, apophysis long, very narrow throughout (Fig. 13); connective Y shaped, arms of uniform width, angled subdistally, stem moderately long, apex bulbous (Fig. 14) dorsal connective very long, narrow (Fig. 12); subgenital plate long, slightly curved, slightly tapered apically, setose on outer lateral margin in distal 2/5 (Fig. 15).

Female: Seventh sternite large, about twice as long as penultimate sternite, caudal margin sinuate.

Material examined: Holotype male, BELIZE, Cayo district, near Teakettle Bank, Pooks Hill, N1709.257N 8851.094W, 279ft., 7-VII- 2003, Charles R. Bartlett (NMNH). Additional specimens, four males, same data as holotype except two specimens collected 6-VII-2003 (NMNH, MWN), two females same data as holotype except collected 3-VII-2003 and 5-VII-2003 (NMNH).

Etymology: The name of the species denotes variation in the number of setae on the aedeagal shaft, which varies from zero to one. The name is based in the Latin root “varius” meaning change and “bilis” for combined adjective and feminine ending.
Jikradia exilis
Nielson and Poggi, n. sp.
Fig. 16, Fig. 17, Fig. 18, Fig. 19 and Fig. 20
Length: Male 4.34 mm, female unknown.

External morphology: Small, slender species. General color black with markings on forewings; head black, crown black bordered with yellow on lateral margins; eyes black; forewings black, costa with narrow, yellow stripe on outer margin, joined to yellow spot subapically, appendix with yellow border, small yellow spot at apex of clavus; face yellow with two longitudinal black stripes from apex of clypeus to apex of clypellus.

Male genitalia: Pygofer in lateral view more or less rectangular, its caudal margin slightly tapered, apex with few microsetae (Fig. 16); aedeagus very long, nearly twice as long as style, very narrow throughout from base to apex, small narrow spine subapically, tuft of 4-5 microsetae subapically, gonopore subapical (Fig. 17); style with long narrow apophysis, nearly recurved apically (Fig. 18); connective Y-shaped, arms broad, broadly curved, membrane absent, stem moderately long and robust (Fig. 19); dorsal connective very long and narrow (Fig. 17); subgenital plate long, constricted along basal 1/5, with subbasal lobe on inner lateral margin, row of microsetae on apical half of inner lateral margin (Fig. 20).

Material examined: Holotype male, COSTA RICA, Rincón, Osa Pen., 100ft. VIII-II-1966, S. L. Wood (MZUCR).

Etymology: The name of this species is descriptive of the very narrow aedeagal shaft. The name is based in the Latin root “exili” meaning thin and the suffix “s” for feminine gender.

Remarks: From J. galapagoensis to which it is nearest, J. exilis can be easily distinguished by the very long narrow aedeagus and the single row of setae on the outer lateral margin of the subgenital plate. The subapical aedeagal process is a spine in J. exilis whereas in J. galapagoensis, it is a seta. Also, J. exilis has two black stripes in the face, characters lacking in J. galapagoensis.
Jikradia olitoria (Say) (reinstated)
Jassus olitorius
Say, 1830:310

Coelidia olitoria (Say); Metcalf, 1964:64
Jikradia olitoria olitoria (Say); Nielson, 1979: 92
Jikradia olitoria (Say) is the most widespread species. The latest taxonomic treatment and previous distribution of this species are covered in Nielson (1979). Comparison of the adult general habitus and male genitalia features between the Italian and American populations are shown in Plate 2 and Fig. 21, Fig. 22, Fig. 23, Fig. 24, Fig. 25, Fig. 26, Fig. 27, Fig. 28, Fig. 29 and Fig. 30, respectively. These differences are not considered significant to justify separate species. Specimens from Italy were collected in Lombardia, Maresso (LC), 350m., 1.viii. 2013, at light, 350m.; 5.ix.2 013 on Populus tremula L., 350 m.; 14.ix.2013 on Salix alba L. by Francesco Poggi. The earliest record appears to be 2010. Specimens from United States were collected in St. Joseph, Buchanan Co, Missouri, on 18. vii. 1987 on unidentified shrubs and trees by M. W. Nielson.

Reinstated and new status species

Jikradia melanota (Spångberg) [reinstated]
Jassus melanotus Spångberg, 1878:19
Coelidia melanota (Spångberg); Oman, 1949:55
Coelidia melanota (Spångberg); Metcalf, 1964:60
Coelidia melanota melanota (Spångberg); Nielson, 1979:86
Jikradia galapagoensis (Osborn) [reinstated]
Coelidia galapagoensis (Osborn); Metcalf, 1964:52
Jikradia melanota galapagoensis (Osborn); Nielson, 1979:88
Jikradia bahamensis Nielson [new status]
Jikradia melanota bahamensis Nielson, 1979:90
Jikradia costaricensis Nielson [new status]
Jikradia melanota costaricensis Nielson, 1979:91
Jikradia olitoria (Say) [reinstated]
Jassus olitorius Say, 1830:310
Coelidia olitoria (Say); Metcalf, 1964:64
Jikradia olitoria olitoria (Say); Nielson, 1979:92
Jikradia floridana (Lawson) [reinstated]
Jassus floridanus Lawson, 1927:171
Coelidia floridana (Lawson); Oman, 1949:55
Jikradia olitoria floridana (Lawson); Nielson, 1979:95

Checklist of species of Jikradia

Jikradia bahamensis Nielson (Bahama Islands)
Jikradia basipendula Nielson (Costa Rica, Guatemala (new record), Mexico)
Jikradia bispinosa Nielson (Guatemala, Mexico)
Jikradia cornicula Nielson (Guatemala, Mexico)
Jikradia costaricensis Godoy & Nielson (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Panama)
Jikradia dentata n. sp. (Guatemala)
Jikradia exilisn. sp. (Costa Rica)
Jikradia galapagoensis Nielson (Galapagos Islands)
Jikradia infula Nielson (Mexico)
Jikradia krameri Nielson (Guatemala (new record), Honduras)
Jikradia lizanoi Godoy & Nielson (Costa Rica)
Jikradia longa Godoy & Nielson (Costa Rica)
Jikradia floridana (Lawson) (United States)
Jikradia galapagoensis (Osborn) (El Salvador, Galapagos Islands, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama)
Jikradia melanota (Spångberg) (Bahama Islands, Bermuda, Cuba, United States)
Jikradia mexicana Godoy & Nielson (Mexico)
Jikradia olitoria (Say) (Canada, Italy (new record) United States)
Jikradia serrata Nielson (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama)
Jikradia trispinata n. sp. (Costa Rica)
Jikradia uniseta Nielson (Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico)
Jikradia variabilis n. sp. (Belize (new record))
Jikradia zurquiensis Godoy & Nielson (Costa Rica)



Previous to this paper, the genus Jikradia was known only in the New World from the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador) northward to Canada. Recent discovery of Jikradia olitoria (Say) from Italy reported by Francesco Poggi and Herbert Nickel extends the distribution to the Old World. Comparisons of the adult general habitus and male genitalia features among specimens from Italy and Missouri, U.S.A are shown in Plate 2 and Fig. 21, Fig. 22, Fig. 23, Fig. 24, Fig. 25, Fig. 26, Fig. 27, Fig. 28, Fig. 29 and Fig. 30, respectively. The Italian adults, on average, were about 2mm shorter than specimens from USA.

The origin of the genus appears to be Guatemala in Central America. Speciation and dispersal are believed to be multidirectional, South to the Galapagos Islands, Northeast to United States and Canada, and from Southern United States to the Caribbean Islands. The Italian population of Jikradia olitoria (Say) was an introduction from the United States.


We thank José Monzón Sierra for his companionship and expertise during RSZ’s studies in Guatemala. We thank Consejo Nacional de Areas Protegidas (CONAP) for Guatemala collecting and export permits, Defensores de la Naturaleza for research permits for the Reserva de las Biósfera de las Minas, and Jack Schuster and Enio B. Cano for assistance and allowing us access to the insect collect at the Universidad del Valle De Guatemala, Guatemala City.


Godoy, C. & Nielson, M. W. (1998). A review of the leafhopper genus Jikradia with descriptions of four new species (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Revista de Biología Tropical, 46(3), 739-748.         [ Links ]

Lawson, P. W. (1927). The genus Jassus in America North of Mexico (Cicadellidae, Hemip.). Canadian Entomologist, 59, 167-174.         [ Links ]

Metcalf, Z. P. (1964). General Catalog of the Homoptera. Fascicle VI. Cicadelloidea. Part 11. Coelidiidae. United States: United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service.         [ Links ]

Nielson, M. W. (1979). A revision of the Subfamily Coelidiinae (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) III. Teruliini, new Tribe. Pacific Insect Monographs, 35, 1-329.         [ Links ]

Nielson, M. W. (1989). Additional new species of teruliine leafhoppers with key to species (Cicadellidae: Coelidiinae: Teruliini). Great Basin Naturalist, 49(3), 398-403.         [ Links ]

Oman, P. (1949). The Nearctic leafhoppers (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). A generic classification and check list. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Washington, 3, 1-253.         [ Links ]

Say, T. (1830). Descriptions of new North American Hemipterous insects belonging to the first family of the section Homoptera of Latreille (continued). Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 6, 299-314.         [ Links ]

Spångberg, J. (1878). Species Jassi generis Homopterorum descripsit. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens.Öfversigt af Forhandlingar, 35(8), 3-40.         [ Links ]

1. Retired, former Affiliate Faculty, Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84606 USA;
2. M. T. James Entomological Collection, Department of Entomology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6382 USA;
3. Private Entomologist;
4. Ehrengard-Schramm-Weg 2, 37085 Göttingen, Germany;

Received 13-I-2014. Corrected 20-VI-2014. Accepted 23-VII-2014.

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