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Revista de Biología Tropical

On-line version ISSN 0034-7744

Abstract

HERRERO U., Libia; PALACIOS F., Alejandro; HUN O., Laya  and  VEGA A., Francisco. Ausencia de detección de enterovirus en bivalvos Anadara tuberculosa (Bivalvia: Arcidae) por contaminación química en el Pacífico de Costa Rica. Rev. biol. trop [online]. 1999, vol.47, n.3, pp. 419-427. ISSN 0034-7744.

Anadara tuberculosa is one of the most abundant mollusks of commercial importance in Costa Rica. Its habitat water is a potential source of fecal and chemical contamination to humans. We wanted to asses enterovirus, mainly poliovirus and hepatitis A virus and chemicals such as sulphates and nitrates in meat and body fluids. Thirteen samples were taken from four sites in Nicoya Gulf, three sites in the Sierpe-Térraba mangrove (Pacific of Costa Rica) and from five fish markets in San José, the capital of Costa Rica. Samples were tested for 1) fecal coliforms (Most Probable Number/100 ml), 2) isolation of enterovirus in cell culture (Hep-2, FrhK-4), 3) cell cytotoxicity in Vero cells and 4) the ability to inactivate 10 ID50% of poliovirus in cell culture. The Most Probable Number/100 ml in surrounding water was higher than the accepted standard for recreational waters, although the number of fecal coliforms in meats and body fluids was lower than in the external water. No cytopathogenic agents were isolated, but we found nitrate and sulphate concentrations that exceeded maxima for human consumption and recreation. The intrinsic cytotoxicity of the samples was at a 1/8 dilution, but some samples were cytotoxic at dilutions of 1/128. Body fluids were more cytotoxic than meats, but a positive correlation between cytotoxicity and chemical contamination was not determined: apparently other pollutants not identified in this study were responsible. Fluid and meat capacity to inactivate 10 ID50% of poliovirus in cell culture was demonstrated. Samples that were toxic for cell cultures also showed a higher percentage of poliovirus inactivation. Monitoring chemical pollution in these waters is highly recommended.

Keywords : Bivalves; enterovirus; fecal coliforms; citotoxicity; poliovirus inactivation; chemical contamination.

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