Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Actualidades en Psicología]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/rss.php?pid=2215-353520170002&lang=en vol. 31 num. 123 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.sa.cr <![CDATA[Editorial]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2215-35352017000200001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Self-perceived social status: its relation to aggression and personality traits in two Spanish speaking samples]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2215-35352017000200002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Dominance and prestige are two strategies to achieve status in humans. Dominance is the use of threat and aggression, and prestige is the pursuit of cultural achievement. This research presents a study carried out through self-report measures with two native Spanish speaking samples from Madrid (Spain) and San José (Costa Rica). Self-perceived dominance and prestige were correlated with dimensions of aggression and the big five personality traits. Results showed that a component that grouped different aggression subscales and agreeableness was the best predictor of dominance in samples of men and women of both countries. Prestige was mainly predicted by conscientiousness and extraversion in both samples and by low hostility and neuroticism but only in Spanish men.<hr/>Resumen Dominancia y prestigio se han propuesto como estrategias para alcanzar estatus en humanos. La dominancia es el uso de amenazas y agresión, y el prestigio es la búsqueda de logros culturales. Esta investigación fue llevada a cabo utilizando cuestionarios en muestras de habla hispana: Madrid (España) y San José (Costa Rica). La dominancia y el prestigio auto-percibidos fueron correlacionados con dimensiones de la agresión y los cinco grandes rasgos de personalidad. Un componente que agrupó las subescalas de agresión y la afabilidad fue el mejor predictor de la dominancia en ambos sexos de ambos países. El prestigio fue predicho por la escrupulosidad y la extroversión en sendas muestras y por bajas puntuaciones en hostilidad y neuroticismo en hombres españoles. <![CDATA[The perpetration of antisocial behaviours in young cape verdean: a predictive study]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2215-35352017000200014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumo Em Cabo-Verde, desde finais dos anos 90 tem-se assistido a um aumento crescente dos comportamentos antissociais cometidos por jovens com idades compreendidas entre os 12 e os 21 anos. Todavia, o conhecimento acerca dos fatores que estão na génese e manutenção de tais comportamentos revela-se, ainda, incipiente. Neste estudo procurou-se identificar os fatores que predizem comportamentos antissociais auto relatados, recorrendo-se, para o efeito, aoInternational Self-Report DelinquencyStudy (ISRD-3). A amostra foi constituída por 535 alunos de ambos os sexos a frequentar o ensino público secundário em Cabo Verde, sendo 284 (53%) do sexo feminino e 247 (46.25%) do sexo masculino. A idade dos jovens varia entre os 13 e os 21 anos, tendo uma média de idade de 16.66 e um desvio padrão de 2.04. Os resultados indicam que o sexo é um forte preditor da perpetração de comportamentos antissociais, sendo que indivíduos do sexo masculino revelam maior probabilidade de envolvimento em comportamentos antissociais. Os adolescentes com menos atitudes antissociais são também aqueles com menor probabilidade de se envolverem em comportamentos antisociais. Da mesma forma, e ainda que apenas se revele marginalmente significativa, os adolescentes que relatam maior envolvimento em atividades antissociais evidenciam uma maior probabilidade de se envolverem em atividades de ocupação dos tempos livres disruptivas. Estes resultados são analisados em termos das suas implicações para a prevenção da delinquência.<hr/>Abstract In Cape Verde, since the end of the 1990s years there has been a significant increase of antisocial behaviors committed by young people (aged 12 and 21). Nevertheless, knowledge of factors that lie at the origin and maintenance of such behaviors still reveals incident or are still at an early stage. In this study, we tried to identify possible risk factors that forecast antisocial behaviour, self-reported by using, for this purpose, the International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD-3).The sample consisted of 535 students from both sexes attending public secondary education in Cape Verde, of which 284 (53%) were females and 247 (46.25%) males. The age of young people varies between 13 and 21 years, having an average age of 16.66 and a standard deviation of 2.04. The results indicate that sex is a strong predictor of perpetration of antisocial behaviors, given that males show greater probability of engaging in antisocial behaviors. Teenagers with less antisocial attitudes are also those with less probability to engage in antisocial behaviors. Likewise, and even if only reveals marginally significant, adolescents who report major involvement in antisocial activities highlights a greater probability to engage in disruptive hobby activities. These results are analyzed in terms of their implications for the prevention of delinquency. <![CDATA[Predictors of Facebook use among Portugueseadolescents: Contributes of an exploratory study]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2215-35352017000200032&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumo A generalização do uso das redes sociais online, tem trazido oportunidades e constrangimentos ao mesmo tempo-ou até mais depressa-que a investigação e o conhecimento sobre este tópico. Neste trabalho, pretendemos explorer o papel de variáveis pessoais e psicossociais no uso do Facebook, recorrendo a um conjunto de questionários de autorrelato junto de uma amostra de 386 adolescentes portugueses. Os resultados obtidos permitem verificar diferenças na utilização em função do género, uma relação positiva com a idade, a autorregulação e autoestima, sendo a interação com pares da sua rede de contactos offline o mais forte preditor para o uso das redes sociais. Estes dados sugerem o papel desta aplicação como um meio para manter o contacto com os pares.<hr/>Abstract The widespread use of social networks has brought opportunities and constraints at the same time, even faster than research and knowledge on this topic. In this paper, we intend to explore the role of personal and psychosocial variables in Facebook use, considering a set of self-report questionnaires to a sample of 386 Portuguese adolescents. We found gender differences in social network use, a positive relationship with age, self-regulation and self-esteem, with peer interaction with offline contacts as the strongest predictor for social network use. These data suggest the role of this application as a mean to maintain contact with peers. <![CDATA[What do Chilean and Costa Rican psychologists believe and advise about parenting?]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2215-35352017000200044&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract This research investigates the subjective theories of 12 Chilean and Costa Rican psychologists who work with children, with the purpose of describing and interpreting their explanations about child rearing. Episodic interviews were used and analyzed using a Grounded Theory model. The interviewees point out that they use their own experience and beliefs when advising parents. Results indicated that, according to the interviewees, the topics most frequently consulted by parents were children’s high impulsivity and disciplining. The interviewees believe the most common parenting styles are the authoritarian and the permissive ones, the latter being associated with parents’ fear and anxiety.<hr/>Resumen Este estudio investigó las teorías subjetivas de 12 psicólogos(as) chilenos(as) y costarricenses que trabajan en temáticas de infancia, a objeto de poder describir e interpretar sus explicaciones sobre la crianza. Esta investigación fue de carácter cualitativo, con un diseño metodológico descriptivo-interpretativo. Se realizaron entrevistas episódicas, analizadas utilizando el modelo de la Grounded Theory (teoría fundamentada). Los participantes señalaron usar sus propias experiencias y creencias al aconsejar a los padres y a las madres. Según los (as) entrevistados (as), los padres y las madres consultan principalmente sobre la impulsividad y disciplina de los (as) hijos (as). De acuerdo a los (as) entrevistados (as), los estilos parentales más recurrentes son el autoritario y el permisivo, este último asociado con el miedo y ansiedad de los padres y madres. <![CDATA[The agency of people living with HIV, living in impoverished areas of Chiapas in Mexico]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2215-35352017000200062&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen Este trabajo tiene por objetivo identificar las dimensiones de la agencia (presente, pasado y futuro) de personas con VIH (PV) en comunidades de Chiapas, México. La agencia es la capacidad para responder a los desafíos que se suscitan en la vida con los recursos que se disponen. Se realizaron 20 entrevistas (12 hombres y 8 mujeres) a personas que viven con el virus (PV) que habían recibido el diagnóstico al menos un año antes de la entrevista; rango de edad 21 a 59 años. Se siguió un guión de preguntas abiertas. Resultados: las PV, participan en la familia extensa para cubrir necesidades que trae el padecimiento. Discusión: Las PV no carecen de poder para enfrentar los desafíos relacionados con la salud y el estigma asociado al VIH.<hr/>Abstract This paper aims to identify the dimensions of the agency (present past and future) in people with HIV (PV) in communities of Chiapas/México. The agency is the capacity to respond to the challenges that arise in life with resources that are available. Twenty interviews were conducted (12 men and 8 women) to people that lve with the virus (PV) who had received the diagnosis at least one year earlier with an age range from 21 to 59 years. A script of open questions followed. Results: PV participate within the extended family to meet the needs of the disease. Discussion: People with HIV do not lack the power to address health challenges and HIV-related stigma. <![CDATA[Comparative of the subjective quality of life in the Integral Care Centers of two Spanish-speaking countries: perspective from the aging]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2215-35352017000200074&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen El propósito del estudio fue identificar las diferencias en la percepción de la calidad de vida de los adultos mayores que acuden al Instituto de Atención Integral en Saltillo, México y los adultos mayores que acuden a los Centros Espacio Mayor de la municipalidad de Providencia, en Santiago de Chile; así como las diferencias por sexo de ambas muestras. Se utilizó una metodología cuantitativa con alcances exploratorios. Se utilizó una versión adaptada del Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida para Adultos Mayores en Comunidad. Se eligieron, mediante un muestreo intencional, a 535 adultos mayores de Saltillo, Coahuila, México, 49% hombres (n = 262) y 51% mujeres (n = 273), y 300 adultos mayores de la Municipalidad de Providencia en Santiago de Chile, 11% hombres (n = 33) y 89% mujeres (n = 267). Los datos se procesaron mediante prueba de hipótesis para muestras independientes. Los resultados demostraron que sí existen diferencias significativas en los cuatro apartados del instrumento, siendo relevante el apartado Autonomía, ya que las diferencias se encontraron en los seis reactivos que lo conforman a favor de la muestra chilena. En cuanto a los resultados por sexo, se encontraron diferencias significativas en cada uno de los apartados.<hr/>Abstract The purpose of the study was to identify the differences in between the perception of the quality of life of the elderly who attend the Instituto de Atención Integral in Saltillo, Mexico and the elderly who attend the CentrosEspacio Mayor of the Providencia, municipality in Santiago de Chile, as well as the differences by sex of both samples. We used a quantitative methodology with exploratory scopes. An adapted version of the Quality of Life Questionnaire for Older Adults in Community was used. 535 older adults from Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico, 49% men (n = 262) and 51% women (n = 273) and 300 older adults from the Municipality of Providencia in Santiago, Chile, were elected by intentional sampling, 11% are men (n = 33) and 89% are women (n = 267). Data were processed by hypothesis testing for independent samples. The results showed that, if there are significant differences in the four sections of the instrument, being relevant the Autonomy section, since the differences were found in the six reagents that make it in favor of the Chilean sample. Regarding the results by sex, significant differences were found in each of the sections. <![CDATA[Validity and Reliability of the Family Satisfaction Scale in University Students of Lima, Peru]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2215-35352017000200090&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo analizar las propiedades psicométricas de la Escala de Satisfacción Familiar (FSS) en una muestra de 607 estudiantes de una universidad privada en Lima Metropolitana, con edades que oscilan entre 16 a 28 años. Se tradujo la escala con el método de traducción inversa; se realizaron análisis factorial exploratorio y confirmatorio, identificando valores óptimos para una solución unifactorial. Asimismo, se analizó la relación con la variable comunicación familiar, que señala una correlación positiva, directa y con un tamaño del efecto moderado. En el análisis de invarianza según sexo, se encontró un nivel de invarianza débil. Finalmente, se reportan valores óptimos de confiabilidad. Se concluye que la FSS presenta evidencias de validez y confiabilidad, recomendando su uso.<hr/>Abstrac The present study is an instrumental research that aims to analyze the psychometric properties of the family satisfaction scale (FSS) in a sample of 607 students from a private university in Lima Metropolitana, aged between 16 and 28 years old. The scale was translated with the inverse method. An exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was performed, identifying optimal values for a unifactorial solution. The relationship with the family communication variable was analyzed in a positive, direct and moderated effect size. In the analysis of invariance according to sex, it indicated a weak level of invariance. Finally, optimal values of reliability are reported. It is concluded that the FSS presents evidence of validity and reliability, its use being recommended.