Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Lankesteriana]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/rss.php?pid=1409-387120170002&lang=en vol. 17 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.sa.cr <![CDATA[Genera Pleurothallidinarum: The Era of Carlyle Luer]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1409-38712017000200001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en AbstractThe era or Carlyle Luer, which currently comprehends the forty-two years since the publication of the first Icones Pleurothallidinarum in 1975, has witnessed a true revolution in the knowledge and understanding of the species belonging to the subtribe. When Luer came into the scene, after more than two hundred years of Pleurothallidinae history, there were just about 4,000 published taxon names in the subtribe, including 52 generic names and barely 1,650 accepted species. Today there are 12,133 published taxon names, including 164 generic names, and 5,114 currently accepted species belonging to the subtribe. This means that during the Luerian era published taxa, accepted or otherwise, were tripled. During this period the rate of species description has been about 85-90 species per year, and there is nothing suggesting this rate will slow down anytime soon. If this trend is maintained, as we believe it will, by the year 2026, the subtribe will include close to six thousand accepted species. <![CDATA[A new species of <em>Brachionidium</em> (Pleurothallidinae: Orchidaceae) from The High Montane Forest in The Central Jungle of Peru]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1409-38712017000200113&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en AbstractA new species of Brachionidium was found on the highest mountains of the Central Jungle of Peru, on a wet Puna forest at 3470 m altitude. This species is similar to B. loxense and B. diaphanum but can be distinguished by its elliptic leaves with petioles 3-4 mm long; the short erect floral peduncle 2-3 mm long; the pink translucent sepals, red-wine toward the base; the floral bract spatuliform 15 × 5 mm; lip red-wine, bimarginated, trapezoidal, small, fleshy, obtuse acuminate, slightly prolonged lateral lobes antrorse and straight with a strongly pubescent cordate callus, split towards the apex. <![CDATA[A New Species of <em>Pleurothallis</em> (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia and A Note on the Relationship between Subsections <em>Macrophyllae-Racemosae</em> and <em>Antenniferae</em>]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1409-38712017000200119&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en AbstractA new species of Pleurothallis from subsection Macrophyllae-Racemosae is described from Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Morphological characteristics to distinguish this species from Pleurothallis bicornis, P. subreniformis and P. torrana are presented. The micromorphology of the lip of the new species was studied utilizing scanning electron microscopy. Labellar micromorphology is discussed in relation to putative pollination mechanisms. <![CDATA[A clarification of the distinctions between <em>Pleurothallis Talpinaria</em> and <em>Pleurothallis Trimeroglossa</em> (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) and an allied new species from Ecuador]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1409-38712017000200133&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en AbstractPleurothallis trimeroglossa has long been considered a synonym of P. talpinaria. In this study we reviewed types, descriptions, drawings, paintings and living material for both names and concluded that P. talpinaria and P. trimeroglossa should be recognized as distinct species. An anatomical structure important in the distinction between the two is the large dome-shaped callus at the base of the lip in P. trimeroglossa. The approximate distributions and elevational ranges of the two species are discussed. During the study we recognized a novel species, described here as Pleurothallis jostii. Labellar morphology of all three species was examined. We speculate on the pollination mechanism of this group of species based on the observations of labellar micro-morphology. <![CDATA[Two new species of <em>Pleurothallis</em> (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from Costa Rica in the <em>P. Phyllocardia</em> group]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1409-38712017000200153&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en AbstractTwo new species of Pleurothallis subsection Macrophyllae-Fasciculatae from Costa Rica are described and illustrated, and their relationships discussed. Pleurothallis pudica, from the central Pacific mountain region, is compared with P. phyllocardia, but it is easily recognized by the densely pubescenthirsute flowers. Pleurothallis luna-crescens, from the Caribbean slope of the Talamanca chain, is compared with P. radula and P. rectipetala, from which it is distinguished by the dark purple flowers and the distinctly longer, dentate petals, respectively. A key to the species of the group in Costa Rica and western Panama is presented. <![CDATA[A clarification of the taxonomy Of <em>Pleurothallis Crocodiliceps</em> (Pleurothallidinae, Orchidaceae) and four new species of <em>Pleurothallis</em> in Subgenus <em>Ancipitia</em>]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1409-38712017000200165&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en AbstractIn this paper we summarize the taxonomic history of Pleurothallis crocodiliceps Rchb.f. and demonstrate that the species described by Reichenbach did not possess the stereotypical minute, pubescent, tri-lobed lip, with basal lobes modified into “horns”. The first two species described with such a lip were P. arietina and P. nelsonii. Rather than a single widely distributed, variable species, with a morphologically constant lip, P. crocodiliceps, we recognize the P. arietina-P. nelsonii species complex. Herein we describe four new species in this complex and discuss the morphological characters useful in distinguishing among the members of the complex. We also discuss the nature of the lip possessed by members of this complex and propose that it may mimic a female insect luring a male fly into pollinating the flower by pseudocopulation. <![CDATA[Novelties in Costa Rican <em>Stelis</em> (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae): Two new species and a new record in the “Dracontia Group”]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1409-38712017000200193&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en AbstractStelis dies-natalis and Stelis aenigma, belonging to a group of mostly Middle American species alternatively placed in genus Dracontia, are described and illustrated based on living material. They were both found in oak forests at high elevations on diverse peaks of the Talamanca mountain range in Costa Rica. The first, S. dies-natalis, was found on Cerro Buena Vista and Cerro Urán, and is somewhat similar to S. hydra but can be distinguished by the relatively short inflorescence, the dark purple flowers with a yellow lip covered by dark purple warts, the apiculate apex of the petals and the lip with a shortly acuminate apicule. The second, S. aenigma, was initially believed to be a specimen of S. dies-natalis when it was collected on Cerro Utyum, but it can be easily distinguished by the few-flowered inflorescence that barely exceeds the leaf, the reddish flowers, the sigmoid lip and the cucullate, obtuse anther. Stelis platystylis, a species previously known from Mexico to Nicaragua is illustrated based on living material from Costa Rica.<hr/>ResumenStelis dies-natalis y Stelis aenigma, pertenecientes a un grupo de especies en su mayoría Centroamericanas colocadas alternativamente en el género Dracontia, son descritas e ilustradas basadas en material vivo. Ambas se encontraron en robledales de altura en diferentes picos de la Cordillera de Talamanca en Costa Rica. La primera, S. dies-natalis, se encontró en los Cerros Buena Vista y Urán, es similar a S. hydra pero se puede distinguir por la inflorescencia relativamente corta, las flores morado oscuro con un labelo amarillo cubierto por verrugas morado oscuro, los pétalos apiculados y el labelo con un apículo brevemente acuminado. La segunda, S. aenigma, que se pensaba inicialmente que se trataría de un espécimen de S. diesnatalis cuando se colectó en el Cerro Utyum, pero se puede distinguir fácilmente por las inflorescencias con pocas flores que apenas supera el tamaño de la hoja, las flores rojizas, el labelo sigmoideo y la antera obtusa y cuculada. Stelis platystylis, una especie previamente conocida de México a Nicaragua, es ilustraba basada en material vivo de Costa Rica. <![CDATA[Additions to the Costa Rican <em>Myoxanthus</em> (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae )]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1409-38712017000200203&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en AbstractPleurothallis cerea, a species described based on a specimen collected by Lankester in Costa Rica, and commonly placed under the synonymy of Myoxanthus octomeriae or M. congestus, is here recognized as distinct. The species is easily distinguished by the shape and size of the leaf, as well as various floral details, especially of the lip. A new combination, tentatively suggested by Carl Luer but never published, is required and therefore validated. Additionally, the vegetatively striking Myoxanthus affinis is recorded from Costa Rica for the first time based on two recent collections. The species is variable within its broad distribution from Colombia to Bolivia and, although differences with the original material from Peru are evident, we cannot be sure at this time that ours represents a different species. Both species are described and illustrated based on living plants. <![CDATA[Two novelties in genus <em>Platystele</em> (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from Costa Rica]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1409-38712017000200215&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en AbstractTwo new species of Platystele allied to the P. oxyglossa complex are described from Costa Rica. Platystele carl-lueriana can be distinguished from P. catiensis and P. oxyglossa by the compact inflorescence that barely exceeds the leaf, from P. pedicellaris by the large plants with long leaves and small flowers, and from P. tausensis by the yellowish sepals and petals (vs. purple stained) and the minutely glandular (vs. apically hirsute) lip. The second species, Platystele jane-lueriana, can be easily distinguished by the glabrous flowers, and the conspicuously inflated, bulbous lip, with an incurved apex. Among the other members of the complex, it is most closely resembles P. pedicellaris in the compact inflorescence that is subequal to the leaves, but is distinguished by tail-less sepals and the linear-ligulate petals. With these additions, the total number of Costa Rican Platystele reaches twenty species. <![CDATA[<em>Diodonopsis Ramiromedinae</em> (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae), a new species from Colombia]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1409-38712017000200223&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en AbstractA new species, Diodonopsis ramiromedinae, is described, illustrated, and compared with similar species. A brief history of Masdevallia sect. Pygmaeae and the genus Diodonopsis is provided. Diodonopsis ramiromedinae is most similar to D. anachaeta, but differs by sepals with apices acute or acuminate-triangular vs. narrowly caudate; longer petals with a descending, narrowly linear, rounded basal process vs. with an acute, retrorse basal process; and the larger lip, obovate with the apex very broadly rounded vs. oblong-subpandurate with the apex acute. <![CDATA[A New Species of <em>Lepanthes</em> (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) From Colombia with A Large and Protruding Column]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1409-38712017000200227&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en AbstractA new species of Lepanthes from the Western Cordillera of the Colombian Andes, characterized by similar triangular sepals with a large and protruding column, is described and illustrated. The new species is similar to Lepanthes pelorostele from Ecuador, but can be distinguished from the latter by having orange and ciliate sepals and larger petals and lip.<hr/>ResumenSe describe e ilustra una nueva especie de Lepanthes de la Cordillera Occidental de los Andes colombianos caracterizada por tener sépalos triangulares similares y una columna sobresaliente. Esta nueva especie es similar a Lepanthes pelorostele, de Ecuador, pero se puede distinguir de esta última por tener sépalos ciliados, anaranjados y pétalos y labelo más grandes. <![CDATA[<em>Masdevallia Luerorum</em> (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) <em>,</em> a new species from Costa Rica]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1409-38712017000200235&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en AbstractMasdevallia luerorum from the southern Pacific region of Costa Rica is described and illustrated. It resembles M. lata, but differs in the single flowered inflorescence, the shorter sepals, the broad and cylindrical sepaline tube, the smaller mentum beneath the column-foot, a smaller secondary mentum, a slight deflection between the two mentums, and the lip with marginal folds near the middle, apically rounded and conspicuously verrucose. Initial phylogenetic evidence indicated that Masdevallia nicaraguae is closely allied to M. luerorum. However, M. nicaraguae is distinguished by the white flowers suffused with fuchsia stripes toward the bases of sepals and the thick and triangular, shorter sepaline tails of the lateral sepals. Moreover, both species are isolated geographically.<hr/>ResumenSe describe e ilustra Masdevallia luerorum del Pacífico sur de Costa Rica. Es similar a M. lata, pero difiere en la infloresencia uniflora, los sépalos más cortos, el tubo sepalino amplio y cilíndrico un mentón más pequeño debajo del pie de la columna, un mentón secundario más corto, una ligera deflexión entre ambos mentones, y el labelo con pliegues marginales cerca de la mitad y apicalmente redondeado y conspicuamente verrucoso. Evidencia filogenética inicial indicó que Masdevallia nicaraguae está estrechamente relacionada con M. luerorum. Sin embargo, M. nicaraguae se distingue por las flores blancas con rayas fucsia hacia las bases de los sépalos y colas sepalinas triangulares, más cortas y gruesas. Además, ambas especies están aisladas geográficamente. <![CDATA[<em>Platystele Pamelae</em> ( Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae), A New Species From Ecuador]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1409-38712017000200245&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en AbstractA new species of Platystele from the cloud forests of Northern Ecuador is described and illustrated. Platystele pamelae is compared to P. alucitae, a species that is overall similar and has been found growing sympatrically. The morphology of the leaves, the shape of the sepals and the intense sulphur-colored oblong lip, easily separate P. pamelae from P. alucitae and all other species in Platystele. Taxonomical and ecological notes are given. <![CDATA[Four new species of Pleurothallis (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from The Valle del Cauca Department in Colombia]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1409-38712017000200251&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en AbstractPleurothallis indecora, P. juvenilis, P. lueriana and P. queremalensis are described from material collected in the municipality of Dagua, department of Valle del Cauca, Colombia. The four species were found during field inventories of the Orchidaceae in San José del Salado and El Queremal, they are illustrated, and a comparison with their closest relatives is provided. <![CDATA[Four new <em>Teagueia</em> (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from the upper Río Pastaza watershed of East-Central Ecuador]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1409-38712017000200261&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en AbstractThe genus Teagueia, once considered a minor genus with few species, has undergone a surprisingly diverse local evolutionary radiation in the upper Río Pastaza watershed of the eastern Andes of Ecuador. All species forming this local radiation are long-repent, in contrast to the rest of the species in the genus. Six species from this local radiation have been described previously, and four additional species are described here. The four new species are each distinguished by their particular lip shapes, differences in flower sizes, and differences in leaf textures. The new species, like the others in this radiation, all have extremely narrow distributions.<hr/>ResumenEl género Teagueia, una vez considerado como un género menor con muy pocas especies, ha experimentado una sorprendente radiación evolutiva de alta diversidad en la cuenca alta del Río Pastaza ubicada en los Andes orientales del Ecuador. Todos los miembros de esta radiación local comparten un habito largo-reptante, en contraste con el resto de las especies del género. Seis especies de esta radiación local fueron descritas anteriormente; aqui se describe cuatro especies adicionales. Cada una de las cuatro especies nuevas se distingue por la forma particular de sus labelo, diferencias en los tamaños de sus flores, y diferencias en las textura de sus hojas. Todas las especies nuevas, al igual que las otras de esta radiación, tienen distribuciones extremadamente reducidas. <![CDATA[A new large-flowered <em>Cyrtochilum</em> (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae) from Ecuador, named in honor of two orchid research legends]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1409-38712017000200279&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en AbstractA new and attractive but little-known Cyrtochilum (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae), which was previously misidentified as Cyrtochilum aemulum, is named in honor of the 95th birthdays of Carlyle August and Jane Hortense Pfeiffenberger Luer of Sarasota, Florida, the most prolific orchid research couple the world has ever known. The background of how the author first became acquainted with the legendary researchers is featured here together with color photographs of them taken by the author on various occasions during their long career. The new Cyrtochilum is described, illustrated and compared with the rather similarly colored C. aemulum. The new species is distinguished from it by the combination of geniculated and shortly spathulate bases of the petals and a glabrous, more erect and more complex lip callus versus shortly unguiculate bases of the petals and a finely micro-pubescent and a horizontally flatter and more simple lip-callus of C. aemulum. <![CDATA[Two new species of <em>Echinosepala</em> (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae)]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1409-38712017000200285&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en AbstractWe describe and illustrate two new species of Echinosepala from Costa Rica, they are placed within a phylogenetic framework of the genus, and compared to their closest relatives. A short resume of the genus’ history is given, reviewing the main characters that have been used to group its species at various taxonomic ranks. Echinosepala expolita is compared with E. pan, from which it mainly differs by the glabrous, inflated sheaths that cover the ramicaul, the distinctly broader ligulate-lanceolate leaves, the lanate-hirsute ovary, the much larger flower, and the tomentose abaxial indumentum of the sepals. Echinosepala longipedunculata is similar to E. aspasicensis, but can be recognized by the unusually long peduncle, the greenish yellow flower, the verrucosetuberculate adaxial surface of the sepals, and the shorter, truncate, orange lip. A key to the Costa Rican species of Echinosepala is provided. A new combination in Echinosepala is proposed for Acianthera biseta from Peru.<hr/>ResumenSe describen e ilustran dos nuevas especies de Echinosepala de Costa Rica, discutiéndolas dentro del marco filogenético del género y comparándolas con sus parientes más cercanos. Retomamos brevemente la historia del género, revisando los principales caracteres que han sido utilizados para agrupar sus especies en diferentes rangos taxonómicos. Echinosepala expolita se compara con E. pan, de la cual difiere principalmente por las vainas glabras e infladas que cubren el ramicaule, las hojas distintamente ligulado-lanceoladas, el ovario lanado-hirsuto, la flor mucho más grande y la indumentaria abaxial tomentosa de los sépalos. Echinosepala longipedunculata es similar a E. aspasicensis, pero puede ser reconocida por el pedúnculo inusualmente largo, las flores amarillo-verdosas, la superficie adaxial verrugosa-tuberculosa de los sépalos y el labelo más corto, truncado y de color naranja. Se proporciona una clave taxonómica para las especies costarricenses de Echinosepala. Se propone una nueva combinación en Echinosepala para Acianthera biseta. <![CDATA[<em>Scaphosepalum Zieglerae</em> , a showy new species in the genus (Pleurothallidinae: Orchidaceae)]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1409-38712017000200305&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en AbstractScaphosepalum zieglerae is described from a small area near Chical in northern Ecuador. It is distinguished by the large plant, waxy yellow flowers densely spotted with brown red to blood-red, spiky tails of the lateral sepals and a dark blood-red, wingless lip. It is here compared to Scaphosepalum beluosum with which it shares most similarities, and to S. fimbriatum, another species with fimbriated sepaline tails. <![CDATA[A new species of <em>Andinia</em> Subgen <em>. Brachycladium</em> (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from Colombia]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1409-38712017000200311&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en AbstractA new species of Andinia belonging to A. subgenus Brachycladium from the eastern Andes of southern Colombia is described and illustrated. Andinia obesa is related to the A. nummularia species complex, characterized by the glabrous leaves, short inflorescences, an inconspicuous trilobed lip and a relatively large column. The new species can be distinguished by the unusually plump, orbicular, cucullate column with an incumbent anther. <![CDATA[From the past to the future - glacial refugia, current distribution patterns and future potential range changes Of <em>Diodonopsis</em> (Orchidaceae) representatives]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1409-38712017000200315&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en AbstractThe distribution patterns of Neotropical orchid genus Diodonopsis were analysed and the location of its glacial refugia was reconstructed. The possible changes in the coverage of suitable niches of Diodonopsis representatives were evaluated using three different scenarios. The results of ecological niche modeling indicated that the range of studied taxa is in regression since last glacial maximum. The climatic niches of three Diodonopsis species are well separated. <![CDATA[Two new species of <em>Pleurothallis</em> (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) allied to <em>P. Cardiothallis</em> , with a note on flower activity]]> http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1409-38712017000200329&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en AbstractTwo new species of Pleurothallis subsection Macrophyllae-Fasciculatae from Costa Rica, allied to P. cardiothallis, are described and illustrated, and their relationships discussed. Pleurothallis scotinantha is compared with P. oncoglossa, from which it can be easily distinguished by the concolorous, dark purple flowers, the distinctly deflexed petals, and the lip without a distal callus that is not hooked at the apex. Pleurothallis navisepala, from the northern Costa Rican cordilleras, is compared with P. cardiothallis, from which it is distinguished by the simultaneous flowering of two or more flowers, the much smaller size of the flowers, and the deeply navicular sysnsepal, which prevents complete spreading of the flower. A key to the Costa Rican species of the group is presented. Observations on floral behavior in the species allied to P. cardiothallis are provided and the possible function of this behavior is discussed. The visit of a tephritid fly to the flowers of P. navisepala is described.